a problem of arbitrary control of a heart rhythm

Positions about direct, arbitrary control RS have received in due time a negative assessment (V.V.Orlov, A.N.Timofeeva, 1978), whereas a question on indirect influence on the given function (Y.P. Hatch, R.Y.

Gatchel, 1979), including avtokrdiolidirovanie, (V.M.Zatsiorsky, 1962; A.F.bruise, 1994), remains open.

Indirect influence on RS can be rendered by means of arbitrary change of a respiration rate (M. P. Lehrer et al, 2000; G.A.Pohotko, etc., 2001; V.M.Pokrovsky, etc., 2002; V.M.Pokrovsky, 2006), including the breath interrupted returnable apnoe (J. Larri Findley et al, 1985). A morphological basis of interaction of breath and the warm activity, carried out through parasympathetic excitatory system neurones of a double kernel are. Interaction of respiratory and cardiovascular systems basically in gigantokletochnom a kernel retikuljarnoj the formations, carrying out integrativnuju function and participating in geneze a respiratory rhythm (V.E.Yakunin, 1987) is realised at interaction with neurones on which arrives impulsatsija with medulljarnyh chemoceptors (M. E Schlafke et al, 1983). Impulses from neurones of this kernel can arrive on many excitatory formations of myelencephalon, in particular, on simpatoaktivirujushchie neurones which settle down on border gigantokletochnogo, small-celled and
Central ventral the kernels, which tone defines capacity of pots (V.P.Lebedev, 1986), rendering also simpatikotonicheskoe influence and on warm activity.

Influence of breath on heart is expressed by the known phenomenon respiratory aritmii (YES), showing in increase serdtsebieny on a breath and their retardation on an expiration (A.I.Fogelson, 1957). Insignificant fluctuations of a cardiac rhythm, depending on breath phases, are observed constantly and provided with variety of physiological mechanisms (J.A. Hirsch, B.Bishop, 1981).

Change of frequency of warm reductions (CHSS), as a rule, intensive augmentation, is observed at a contagious excitation (E.I.Masterova, etc., 1999; Andrianov V.V., Vasiljuk N.A., 2001; V.N.Dumbaj, K.E.Bugaev, 2002). The brain cortex also can influence on RS, developing conditioned reflexes on various indifferent razdrazhiteli, more often signalling about forthcoming hard work (N.A.Fomin, 1982; B.M.Feodor, etc., 1986; N.A.Agadzhanjan, etc., 2001; Maljarenko So-called, 2001; M.E. Thornton et al., 2001). There are certain data, that practically any healthy person can in the presence of the objective information on current frequency of reductions (feedback) purposefully to raise or reduce it in some limens (V.M.Zatsiorsky, 1969). Thus average value of arbitrary increase of a pulse rate for the unexercised person compounds 8-12 ud/mines, and decrease — 3-5 ud/mines (N.B.Suvorov, etc. 1998). In experiments with attempt to reveal arbitrary regulation of function of heart it was found out what probably only to define size of change CHSS and sportsmen not going in for sports examinees (J define this size more precisely, than. D. House, 1983). Thus, ability of the person indirectly has been confirmed to operate activity of the heart.

avtokardiolidirovanie as the mean of indirect control RS by means of change of a muscular strain, uses developed and
The described V.M.Zatsiorskim in 1962 g "avtokardiolider", a representing training apparatus with a biological feedback (IS barefooted).

A principle essence it is barefooted that inaccessible in usual conditions of arbitrary regulation of function of an organism can become supervised at use of the special adaptations informing on a state of members and systems, in particular, temperatures and electrical conductivity of a skin, forces of a muscular strain, arterial pressure, frequency of warm reductions, electroactivity of a brain (H. J. Sandweiss, 1985). Means the person is barefooted is trained in ability to regulate one or several physiological parametres, influencing, thus, on necessary indicators. According to definition of the American association of applied psychophysiology and a biological feedback (AARV), it is barefooted is even not pharmacological method of treatment with use of special equipment for registration, intensifying and "anatropic return" to the patient of the physiological information. The primary goal of a method is self-control training when the feedback facilitates training process to the physiological control the same as at training to any art, and the conforming equipment does accessible to the patient the information, in usual conditions by it not accepted (M.S. Schwartz, 1995; O.I.Ivashchenko, 2001). These methods widely enough take root into medical and sports practice (S.David Gans 1985; L. Steven Wolf, 1985; S.A.Bugaev, etc., 1986; A.F.bruise, 1994).

avtokardiolider (autotrainer) works as follows: the experimenter (or the trainer) sets the training program (in the form of desirable frequency of reductions of heart), the program can be calculated practically on unlimited time, and the enhanced biopotentials of the sportsman will be transformed to the rectangular impulses which frequency of following is defined by appearance of tooth R an electrocardiogram. Corresponding impulsatsija (by radio or wires) arrives on an orifice avtokardiolidera where it is compared to programmed frequency RS. In a case if a mismatch between
The program and its realisation it is insignificant, the autotrainer does not give away any signals. If the valid pulse rate above or below program, the sportsman receives about it the sound or visual alarm system forcing it to increase or, on the contrary, to lower intensity of performance of exercise (V.M.Zatsiorsky, 1962; A.Perski, S.P. Tzankoff, B.T.Engel, 1985).

avtokardiolidirovanie now is the most effective mean of indirect control of a heart rhythm and consequently provides adequate to possibilities of an organism exercise stress dosing at performance of physical exercises. (S.V.Kucherenko, A.A.Tarasyuk, J.A.Borodin, 1982; T. Kadil, Z. Bohdanecky, J. Simek, 1985; B.Ariel Gideon, 1985).

Mean of the mediated control of a heart rhythm also can be auralnye rhythmic influences. Now at influence studying auralnyh rhythms on warm activity of the person, some means of influence of rhythmical notes on the person are supposed. For example, there is an opinion, that at coincidence of frequency of a sound wave to frequency of changes of physical characteristics of this or that member, including, naturally, heart, is quite possible the phenomenon of a mechanical resonance having on a member stimulating influence (Donchenko L.V., Nadykta

B. D, 2001; G.J.Maljarenko, 2009).

According to positions of classical physiology influence of rhythms and the rhythmic components which do not have for the person the expressed emotional importance, is carried out, basically, through medial cranked bodies and a hypothalamus (V.V. Shulgovsky, 2000; F.Blum, etc., 2006;

C. Brown, L.Parsons, 2008). These frames of a brain, accepting rhythmical impulses, are capable to transform them and to the emotional experiences projected in the conforming centres of a cortex of the big hemispheres as the special kind of biorhythms. Various total activity of neurones of a brain of the person registered thus, is expressed in
nizkoamplitudnyh fluctuations of electrical activity of various frequency and voltage (N.V.Agadzhanjan, 2001).

At influence on the person rhythmical razdrazhitelej (light, sound or electrical), on character coinciding with predominant frequency of a brain, the phenomenon of mastering of a rhythm (imposed) with its subsequent intensifying (A.A.Ukhtomsky, 1954 can show; G.Uolter, 1966; M.E.Sandomirsky, 1995; Petrushin V. I, 2007). It is natural, that at the heart of the specified phenomenon physiological lability, in the given situation defined as ability of a fabric to replicate certain quantity of exaltations for a time unit according to a rhythm of put irritations (M.N.Livanov, etc., 1951) lays. As changes of state TSNS are reflected in activity vistseralnyh members, influence auralno accepted rhythms on activity serdechnoyososudistoj and respiratory systems (N.V.Ogorodnikova, 1963, 1969 is quite probable; L. Bernardi et al., 2009). Medical procedures of audiovisual stimulation, musical art therapy are based on it and even gipnoterapi for the purpose of optimisation of a psychophysiological state of patients though the dominant role of a rhythmic or melodic component in the given influences is not established.

It is not excluded, that under the influence of a musical rhythm listeners have the predominant frequency of warm activity caused, most likely, by an emotional state of the individual (V.S.Marahasin, V.M.Tsehanovsky, 1987). However, at various musical preferences the infraconscious reflex reactions specified above are capable to variate a respiration rate and warm reductions practically irrespective of degree of musical preparation of examinees and style of music, «but only from rhythmic drawing of experimental musical compositions» (L. Bernardi еt al., 2009).


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Scientific source GORSHKOVA Marina Nikolaevna. Individual and group indicators of a heart rhythm at its mediated control. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Biol.Sci. Tver - 2015. 2015

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