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THE CONCLUSION

According to the theory of functional systems [Anokhin To. V, 1997, 2000] the whole organism represents harmonious interaction of set of functional systems of various level: molecular, homeostatic, behavioural and population [Pike perches To.

V, 2000].

the Central links of many functional systems cover cerebral structures of various level (fig. 29). Interaction of different functional systems at brain level always is under construction by a principle of the domination open by A.A.Uhtomskim (1925). During each given moment of time of brain activity the leader for conservation of a life or organism adaptation in an environment functional system takes hold. Each such system characterises a certain general emotional condition of the organism, providing first, optimal reactions providing first and specialisation, and secondly - the personal relation and motivation of responses. Other functional systems or promote at this time activity of dominating functional system, or zatormazhivajutsja. After satisfaction of requirement of the organism which has generated dominating functional system, other leader on the social and biological importance functional system etc. starts to dominate. Dynamics of formation of functional systems in time follows a principle of system quantization of processes of vital activity [to Sudakov K.V., 1997]. According to this principle, the continuous continuum of processes of vital activity is dismembered in live organisms on discrete pieces - "sistemokvanty" from requirement to its satisfaction. Everyone "sistemokvant" includes formation of corresponding requirement, motivation and the behaviour referred on satisfaction of this requirement, and also a constant estimation by means of return afferentatsii reached intermediate and final the results satisfying this requirement. Cerebral arhitektonika, providing "sistemokvanty", includes all system components established by P.K.Anohinym (1961): eisodic synthesis, decision-making, an acceptor of result of action and an estimation of parametres of the reached results an acceptor of result of action on the basis of arriving in a brain of return afferentatsii.

Leading critical conditions "sistemokvantov" behavioural and mental activity of the person and animals are the motivation and a reinforcement, as the adaptive result satisfying requirement underlying to dominating motivation. In mechanisms of domination of functional systems in a brain the leading part belongs to biological and social motivations.

a Fig. 34. The schematic image of interaction of set of functional systems on brain structures. On the scheme it is shown, that the leading requirement forms the dominating motivation which was taking hold of activity of a brain and organizujushchuju behaviour. 1 ', 2 ', 3 ' - results of activity of functional systems

metabolic, and 1, 2, 3 - homeostatic level. RP - result of behaviour, KR

- a blood channel.

Ascending activating influences motivatsiogennyh the centres on other structures of a brain and a cortex of the big hemispheres make vital energy of each of us [Pavlov I.P., 1951].

Presently when rate of a life is accelerated every year, to the person all is more difficult to adapt for changing conditions of environment, keeping thus emotional balance.

The organism has not time to restore force - all systems of organs are in a constant strain. And naturally such way of life leads as a result to a nervous breakdown and can lay down in a basis of psychosomatic disease. For this reason the doctrine about stress has received presently wide enough popularity.

Ekopatogennye factors, especially in a combination to other causal agents, enlarge risk of development of chronic illnesses especially at children's and teenage age.

According to experts the CART, to 92 % of the adults working on the computer, complain in the end of the working day of various unpleasant sensations and weariness which lead further to adverse consequences. Eyes more often suffer; through some business hours there is a feeling of a burning sensation - as if sand has got to eyes, eyelids are ill. At all very long work behind the computer, no more than 1-2 hours, causes the general and visual fatigue while usual studies cause weariness only in 54 % of teenagers in 73 % of teenagers. uvlekshis the computer, feeling the big emotional enthusiasm, schoolboys at all do not notice the come fatigue and continue to work further. If on the screen not training program, and one of numerous computer games is highlighted, teenagers, even feeling fatigue, not in forces to come off it till some hours.

motor performance Depression is bound now to a computerisation not only educational process, but also automation and mechanisation growth almost all kinds of activity of the person. Consequences of an inactive way of life of teenagers and populations as a whole are a hypodynamia, chronic stress, various adaptation diseases. According to modern representations at various stages of a hypokinesia in blood system the changes typical for stress-reaction [Kovalenko E.A., Gurovskij N.N., 1980] are observed. In particular, the long hypokinesia is characterised by presence in peripheric blood of a neutrocytosis, a monocytosis, a lymphopenia and an eosinopenia [Reutov V. P, 2000]. Development nejtrofilnogo a leukocytosis is bound mainly to the enlarged entering in circulation of medullar neutrophils, rekrutirovanie which Goldberg E.D., Dygaj A.M., Hlusov I.A., 1997 can potentsirovatsja glucocorticoids and catecholamins [; Dygaj A.M., Klimenko N.A. 1992].

It is shown, that some stages of a long hypokinesia are characterised in the absence of the expressed neutrocytosis by augmentation more than three times quantity
neutrophils in a lien [Kamskova J.G., 2000]. The last testifies to involving of this category of leukocytic cells in a marginal pool. At the same time the augmentation of level of neutrophils in a lien was combined with an organ hypoplasia. Simultaneously at 30 daily hypokinesias the thymus involution [by Kamskova J.G., 2000, Pavlova V. I, Popkov M. A, Loktionova I.V., 1997] was observed. Noted in dynamics of a long hypokinesia the hypoplasia of lymphoid organs also is gljukokortikoidzavisimoj [Kvetnansky R., 1995]. According to literature data, characteristic for hypokinetic and immobilizatsionnogo stresses the eosinopenia is AKTG-DEPENDENT process and Goldberg E.D., DygajA.M is bound to an exit of these cells from blood in a connecting tissue [. , Hlusov I.A. , 1997]. In the conditions of a hypokinesia of activation of mononuclear phagocytes and a lymphocytic link of system immunobiologicheskogo supervision the basic mediators stress-realising of systems - catecholamins and the glucocorticoids which maintenance is supported at the raised level for a long time [ by Goldberg E.D. , counteract Dygaj A.M. , to Hlusov I.A. , 1992]. Now there are data about oppression at a long hypokinesia of various links of immunity [Kovalenko E.A., Gurovskij N.N., 1980]. Nevertheless in reply to an additional antigenic load at a 120-day hypokinesia in a liver lymphocytic infiltration and a proliferation zvezdchatyh endotheliocytes [14] were observed diffuznoochagovaja. Last circumstance can be regarded as one of implications immunovospalitelnyh processes [ Goldberg E.D. , Dygaj A.M. , Hlusov I.A. , 1992]. It is necessary to notice, that for a hypokinetic syndrome the hypersensibility to inflammatory agents [Kovalenko E.A., Gurovskij N.N., 1980 is characteristic.] . The similar situation was observed and on other model of restriction of a motor performance - a daily hourly immobilisation [ by Goldberg E.D. , Dygaj A.M. , Hlusov I.A. , 1992]. In the conditions of periodic immobilizatsionnogo stress development immunovospalitelnyh processes in a liver is bound to depression a glucocorticoid - of reactance of lymphoid cells. It is known, that such cytokines as -1 and the TNF and , can potentsirovat rising of fastness of a lymphocytic tissue to gipoplazirujushchemu to action of glucocorticoids [ Korneva E.A. , 1993]. Apparently, cytokines also mediate stimulating action of glucocorticoids on development " lymphoid " in an osteal brain [ Shahs of Century P , 1990]. The point of view that characteristic for stressornoj reactions the involution of a thymic gland is bound not only with gljukokortikoidzavisimym cytolysis T-limfotsitov is represented quite proved. Besides it glucocorticoids potentsirujut migration of thymocytes in lymphonoduses and in an osteal brain [ Shahs of Century P , 1990]. According to our researches at a 30-daily hypokinesia
it is registered " lymphoid " in an osteal brain [Kamskova J.G., 2000]. In they Be lymphocytes enter cooperation with such elements gemopoezindutsirujushchego microenvironments, as macrophages and stromalnye mehanotsity. As a result there is an intensifying of production of the various cytokines possessing hemopoietic activity, as causes hemopoiesis activation [ Shahs of Century P , 1990]. It is necessary to note absence of interrelations between augmentation of quantity of lymphoid cells and lymphopoiesis activation in an organ. According to literary data the experimental hypokinesia is accompanied by lymphopoiesis oppression at simultaneous intensifying of an erythrogenesis with 15 till 30 days [ Pavlova V. I , Popkov M. A , Loktionova I.V. , 1995], that Gromyhina N.J. , Goats of Century A, 1997] will well be compounded with representations about retsiproknoj regulation of these sprouts of a hemopoiesis [.

From the point of view of stressful reaction, has no value, it is pleasant or is not pleasant - intensity of requirement for reorganisation or adaptation is important only. Hans Sele has shown, that adaptation process does not depend on character of a stimulus or a load. Influences (stress factors) can be the most various, but irrespective of the features they conduct to a series of the same changes providing the adaptation. Still V.Kennona's researches (1927, 1929) have shown, that the organism aspires to provide a constancy of internal medium, a constancy of levels

functioning of all systems. When there are new, non-standard conditions there is a reorganisation which through a chain of transformations restores former balance, but already at other level. Thus, it is necessary to notice, that new conditions can be defined not only external (physical), but also internal (psychological) factors. Set of mental and somatic implications in an organism at stressful situations has been named by G.Sele the GENERAL

the ADAPTIC SYNDROME. As a leading link in this chains of adaptation of G.Sele considered endokrinno-gumoralnuju system. It has allocated three phases of development of the general

an adaptic syndrome:

1) the Alarm reaction during which time resistance of an organism goes down (" a phase "), and then protective mechanisms join;

2) a stage of resistance (resistance) when the strain of functioning of systems reaches the organism adaptation according to new conditions;

3) the attrition Stage in which the incompetence of protective mechanisms is taped and accrues disturbance of a coordination of vital signs;

R.Lazaurus (1956, 1970), developing the doctrine about stress, has put forward the concept according to which the physiological stress (bound with real
a stimulus is differentiated) and mental (emotional) stress, at which the person estimates (on the basis of individual knowledge and experience) a forthcoming situation as menacing. Such estimation causes emotions and the same adaptic reorganisation in an organism, as well as any other external stimulus. But, if at physiological stress reorganisation comes at an occurring with a stimulus at mental stress adaptation comes beforehand and precedes a situation. And if the forecast of the person was incorrect, and the come changes are not adequate to the come situation it can lead to stress intensifying.

In adaptation development two stages are traced: urgent, but not perfect adaptation and the perfect long-term. Extreme situations share on short-term when programs of reaction which in the person always " are activated; ", and on long which demand adaptic reorganisation of functional systems of the person, sometimes subjectively strained and under an hour harmful to its health. Among stress factors usually allocate group with short-term action and group with long action. Stress factors of short-term action concern:

- causing pavor (the adverse forecast, adverse experience in the past, etc.)

-causing unpleasant physical sensations (a pain, weariness, etc.)

- rate and rate stress factors (i.e. unreasonably overestimated equipments on record result in the conditions of a competition, information and-or physical overloads, etc.)

- attention derivations (when during the decision of any problem, there are troubles in private life, family, household, etc. difficulties)

-stressory failures (the unsuccessful beginning, errors, etc.)

Stress factors of long action:

-situations of constant risk

-stressory very long load

-stressory constant struggle

- isolation stress factors (impossibility of desirable contacts, condemnation by an environment and so forth)

But owing to that the stress is a reaction nonspecific, it is possible to tell, that at the heart of short-term and long stress identical mechanisms, but working in different regimens, with different intensity lay. If the short-term stress is a rough expenditure of superficial adaptic reserves long is a constant mobilisation and an expenditure both superficial, and deep adaptic
mentality reserves.

transition of short-term stresses in the long Is possible. Repeating extreme conditions can become the reason of long stress. Adaptation to such factors is possible provided that the human body is in time, mobilising deep resources to be arranged to level long extreme to demands of medium. Periodically repeating negative influences - long isolation, illness of relatives, the big responsibility, a continuous duty causing the big weariness, feeling of pavor, fault, hopelessness can be principal causes of long stresses...). The current of long stress is reminded by the general symptoms somatic, and sometimes mental painful conditions; such stress can pass in illness.

As already it became perceptible, very big influence on character of stress renders private world of the person. Each person reacts to events according to the interpreting of external stimulus which, depends on it emotsionalnopsihologicheskoj spheres, social behaviour, education, outlook. The raised emotional excitability, uneasiness, nevrotichnost leads to that the person at times reacts to a weak stimulus as if it has got to an extreme situation. The motivational can render essential influence

factors. For example, it is taped, that: the confidence and moderate feeling of responsibility promotes occurrence of positive emotional mood, forms an optimism condition for which it is characteristic:

) the insignificant intensity of emotional excitation worried as mobilisation of intellectual and physical energy;

) an active position; activity in overcoming of obstacles and difficulties;

And on the contrary - excessive responsibility and underestimation of the possibilities form feeling " pavor before ", which is characterised:

) the raised emotional excitation with alarm;

) feeling of uncertainty in happy end;

) experience of negative emotions even before collision with failures;

Thus, the major factor defining fastness of an organism under adverse conditions is a type of behaviour. Emotions here play a role of the starting factor in formation of a chain of conditions replacing each other by the subsequent. If negative or positive emotions begin new search, they promote rising of fastness of an organism before adverse influences. From the point of view of stress, negative emotions are dangerous that the person
stops search activity, the system of motivations falls, the general resistance of an organism goes down. To restore resistibility and ability to adaptation helps, for example: a healthy night dream, and after more serious emaciation - some weeks of quiet rest.

Value of individual predisposition decreases under extreme, extreme conditions, natural or anthropogenous accidents, wars, criminal violence, but even in these cases the posttraumatic stress arises far not at all transferred traumatic event. On the other hand, daily vital events (such as, changes of family mutual relations, conditions of own health or health of relatives, character of activity or a financial position) owing to their individual importance can appear essential to development of the emotional stress leading to disorders of health [9] . Among such vital events the situations immediately perceived as menacing (illnesses, conflicts, threat to the social status) are allocated; loss situations (mors of relatives, rupture of significant relations) which represent threat to system of social support; Situations of a strain, the "tests" demanding new efforts or use of new resources. In the latter case events can even act as desirable (new responsible work, the introduction into marriage, entering in HIGH SCHOOL), and threat will be bound to destruction of the developed stereotypes and a possible incompetence in new conditions.

the Important role in stress formation is played by features of socialisation at children's age when in an essential measure the individual importance of vital events is defined and reaction stereotypes are formed. The probability of occurrence of mental (especially neurotic) disorders bound to stress depends on a parity of stress factors which influenced the person in the childhood and mature age [Reister G., TressW., Schepank H., Manz R., 1989].

the Probability of development of mental stress at rising frustratsionnoj intensity depends on the features of the person causing degree of fastness to mental stress. Similar lines were designated as feeling kogerentnosti, raising resources of opposition stressogennym to situations [Antonovsky A., 1987], personal endurance, understood as potential ability of active overcoming of difficulties [Maddi S.R., Kobasa S.C., 1984]. Personal resources are substantially defined by ability to construction of the integrated behaviour [Berezin F.B., 1988], that allows even in conditions frustratsionnoj to intensity to keep fastness of the selected line of conduct,
in proportion to consider own requirements and environment demands, to correlate immediate results and the set aside consequences of those or other acts. At good integrirovannosti behaviour energy is distributed in various directions of behaviour according to importance of realised requirements. Than above ability to behaviour integration, overcoming stressogennyh situations is especially successful.

the Clinical phenomena caused by mental stress, it is possible to part on acute stressful reactions which arise after strong traumatic experience of exclusively menacing character and come to the end within days, and sometimes and hours; posttraumatic stressful disorders which represent the fixing, immediate or set aside reaction on similar sorts experience; adaptation reactions, at which accurate communication (including time) with the stressful event involving more or less expressed vital change is traced; neurotic conditions and personal decompensations at which dependence on repeated or chronic influence of stress factors (vital events) is usually found out, it is difficult razreshimyh emotional problems, intrapsihicheskih conflicts, long increase frustratsii and a mental strain. At neurotic conditions and personal decompensations the role of preceding experience and features of the person which define individual vulnerability, are most expressed. Value of emotional stress at these conditions obviously as the stress is not bound to one concrete and obvious situation, and is realised in wider vital context.

On the other hand, it is necessary to consider and that fact, that force of the emotions bound to reception of the new information, is defined by higher nervous activity type. So, at weak (on I.P.Pavlovu) type various pavors, and at the choleric person, first of all, - strong motor excitation will be result of stress. Two remained types are steadier concerning stress in connection with smaller excitability, therefore expression of momentary reaction and the subsequent disturbances at them it is essential more low. However, process of age development of mentality frames preconditions and for correction of congenital type of higher nervous activity, and consequently, and for a softening of consequences of stresses.

In somatike consequences of disturbances of development are shown, to similarly behavioural reactions, depending on depth of the reason which have caused them and features of mental activity. On observations, the most frequent somatic disturbances appear various tumoral or, on the contrary,
dystrophic processes. Various dermal lesions are frequent also. In medicine such phenomena are known as neurodermites, in veterinary science they are not allocated. In the light of new representations about physiology of mental stress there is obvious a communication of emotional disturbances and somatopathies.

the Further researches are necessary for definition of character of communication between types of stress and a morphgenesis of diseases caused by it (dystrophic, hyperplastic changes and diseases of the metabolic nature).

Thus, the analysis of a condition and process of formation of mentality gives a good basis for research of a pathogenesis and preventive maintenance of various somatopathies.

the Doctrine about biomarkers - a new direction in the medical theory of last years. By definition National Instistuta Heart and the Easy USA (1996) Biological markers are quantitatively defined biological parametres which as indicators define health, risk of disease, effects of environment, disease diagnostics, metabolic processes, epidemiologiju etc. and quot; the Important pathophysiological mechanism of development gipoksicheskih or redgipoksicheskih conditions is depression of a redox potential of system of power maintenance and activation initiated by it initiated by free oxygen radicals, with disturbance of regulating function of life-support systems and deep functional disorders of a homeostasis [FalaschiP. , et al., 1994]. Priority value thus, along with a hypoxia, is got by the endogenous intoxication which advance, in turn, leads to insufficiency aggravation kislorodtransportnyh systems and a homeostasis incompetence [ Stratakis C.A. , Chrousos G.P. , 1995].

In parallel with development of a fabric hypoxia the processes bound with energodefitsitom and disturbances of an intracellular homeostasis develop, and also recognising the importance of oppression of systems of antioxidatic and antiradical protection and activation svobodnoradikalnyh processes in development of accumulation toxic intermediatov [Sternberg E.M., Licinio J. , 1995] it is possible to assume, that activation of processes perekisnogo oxidations of structures.

Diseases of organs of breath are one of the most important problems in pediatrics as till now, despite the reached successes, they occupy one of the first places in structure of a children's case rate - by data

the official statistics, 50-73 %. High level of prevalence of the acute

respiratory infections among children - the important social problem, which decision is one of the primary goals of public health services in pediatrics.

It is known, that children and the teenagers who are often ill with acute respiratory infectious diseases, make risk groups on development of acute bronchitises, bronchiolites, formation of a relapsing bronchitis, including obstructive forms, and chronic bronholegochnoj pathologies. The most widespread form, especially among children at the age of 1-3 years, a bronchitis [Tatochenko V. K, 1990 is; Artamonov R. G, 1992, Samsygina G. A, Zajtseva O. V, Kornjushin M. A, 2000, Kaganov S.J., 1999, Gavalov S.M., 1999]. The case rate a bronchitis, according to a number of authors, fluctuates from 15 % to 50 %. This percent essentially raises (to 50-90 %) at children who are often ill with acute respiratory diseases, especially in ecologically adverse regions [Pochivalov A.V., 1998]. Thus at

the prevailing majority of children the obstructive syndrome is observed.

In spite of the fact that last years growth of number of the bronchitis proceeding with a syndrome of bronchial obstruction becomes perceptible, till now there are accurate data about prevalence of an obstructive syndrome at various bronholegochnoj no pathology at children. Contradiction of data on frequency and structure of bronchial obstruction is caused by absence of the uniform approach to differential diagnostics, treatment of an aetiology and a pathogenesis.

Sensitivity of receptors of bronchuses amplifies at the virus infection accompanied by damage of an epithelium of a mucosa of respiratory tracts. The hypersensibility of a bronchial tree to a virus infection can be bound to allergic predisposition and a hyperreactivity of bronchuses [Tatochenko V. K, 2000].

Repeated acute respiratory diseases can promote a sensibilization of an organism and frame preconditions for development of generalised reactions of a hypersensibility, with the subsequent formation of a relapsing obstructive bronchitis, a bronchial asthma and others bronholegochnyh diseases [Pochivalov A.V., 2000; Mizernitskij J.L., 1992; Geppe N.A., Kaganov S.J., 1998].

With reference to a bronchial asthma such indicator are morphological and functional changes of an eosinocyte. Character of inflammatory changes, biomarkers of this process in aggregate with pathophysiological
changes and a clinical picture allow to carry a bronchial asthma to the independent nosological form of a pathology of the person.

the Reason of change of a bronchial tonus considers balance disturbance between raising (cholinergic, not cholinergic and alpha adrenergic system) and inhibiting (v-adrenergicheskaja and not adrenergic inhibiting systems) [Bames P.J., 1992, 1994]. Feature of a children's bronchial asthma is presence of dyssociative disturbances in a nejro-IMMUNO-endocrine complex. The most widespread example is occurrence of a bronchial asthma at children who have transferred perinatalnoe damage of the central nervous system. Frequency intra - and perinatalnoj pathologies at children and teenagers with a bronchial asthma much more exceeds an average threshold and reaches 80 %. The fabric hypoxia arising at a pathological current of pregnancy and sorts, leads to disturbance of synthesis of enzymes, makroergicheskih bonds, to energy balance disturbance. The pathological current of sorts can lead poarzheniju stvolovyh structures of a brain regulating functions of respiratory system that promotes formation bronholegochnoj to a pathology.

60 % of children sick of a bronchial asthma, have changes EEG testifying to involving in pathological process stvolovyh and subthalamic structures of a brain, disturbance of corticosubcortical mutual relations. An outcome of the majority of cases perinatalnoj pathologies TSNS are microstructural changes gipotalamo-gipofizarnoj areas. Clinically shown in disturbance of activity of the vegetative centres, change of hormonal regulation at level rilizingotropnyh hormones, deviations in intellectual-mnesticheskoj activity. These V children earlier manifestation, more serious current of the bronchial asthma, the expressed polyvalent sensibilization is noted. Pristupnyj the period is characterised by the expressed vegetative component (disturbances of emotional sphere, an abdominal syndrome, dream disturbances).

the Manifestation, start of pathological process, its clinical colouring, gravity can depend on a functional condition of the intersystem complex conditionally allocated in neurophysiology as nejro-immunely-endokrinnyj the block. Disbalans a functional condition of sympathetic and parasympathetic departments of vegetative nervous system plays the big role in a pathogenesis of a bronchial asthma. For many patients prevalence of a tonus of parasympathetic department of vegetative nervous system and the perverted reactions to adrenaline is characteristic. One of the reasons can be
influence on a functional condition effektornyh cells of bronchuses and easy autoantibodies against adrenergic receptors.

Unfortunately, the majority of hematological researches in the conditions of a hypokinesia is limited to representations about blood system as about a target for stressornyh hormones and nejromediatorov. However ability of secretory products of a hematogenic parentage to regulate activity of neuroendocrinal mechanisms of stress is not considered. Thus according to the standard point of view the nervous system plays the leading part in perception stressornyh signals from environment, and the endocrine system programs stressornuju reaction in reply to various disturbances of a homeostasis [Sereda E.V., etc., 2001]. Meanwhile now in nejroimmunologii representations about immune system as about " were generated; sensory ", perceiving those stressornye stimuluses, which neraspoznavaemy for nervous system. This point of view is most accurately reflected in concept J. Blalock about " " and about " " Stress factors [Lukjanov S.V., etc., 2001]. All extreme stimuluses concern the first category stressornyh irritantov, provoking that or a different way development " emotional ". On the contrary, " " factors initially co-operate with

immunocompetent cells through cytokines which are secretory products of phagocytic and lymphocytic cells. It is important to underline, that, being mediators of the intercellular cooperation providing formation of the immune answer, interlejkiny (Silt) represent itself as parakrinnyh factors and, hence, are local immunoreguljatorami.

On the basis of the facts set forth above representations about existence makrofagalno-limfotsitarno-gipotalamo-gipofizarnoj stress - are quite defensible

realising system [Artamonov R. G, 1999]. Moreover, in presented immunely - nejro-endocrine axis are traced reguljatornye the mechanisms working by a principle of a negative feedback. So, glucocorticoid hormones possess ability to oppress an expression tsitokinovyh genes (-1; the TNF) in macrophages, thereby to limit participation of leukocytic cells in hemopoiesis activation [Geppe N.A., Kaganov S.J., 1995]. Thus, modern representations about mechanisms of an induction of stress-reaction besides nervous and endocrine components survey also hematological to a component as a nodal link in formation gormonalnometabolicheskogo the organism status at extreme influences and as generalised reaction of a hematological stress-syndrome of system of blood [Tatochenko V. K. 1990] Now researches of system of blood are devoted studying of ways
to activation of a hematological stress-syndrome by the cytokines which actions often happen retsiprokny each other. So, -1 not only causes activation of a hematological stress-syndrome, but also reduces sensitivity to glucocorticoids in target tissues [Geppe N.A., Kaganov S.J., 1995]. Besides it -1 and the TNF reduce density in ^adrenoretseptorov at simultaneous activation of an expression in 2 - adrenoreceptors. It is interesting to notice, that similar shifts v-adrenoreaktivnosti were observed at the initial stages of repeated influence by an hourly immobilisation [Shmelev E.I., 1998]. Besides, for -1, the TNF and and nejtrofilokina ability to strengthen activity cerebral MAO [4] is characteristic and, at last, the secretory product of the activated neutrophils - nejtrofilokin - besides depression a glucocorticoid of-reactance and adrenoreaktivnosti also limits expression stressornoj involutions of a thymus and ultserogeneza [Artamonov R. G, 1992]. It is important to underline, that stress-limiting effects hematological stress - of a syndrome can be carried out by mediators immediately - by interaction with glucocorticoid receptors and adrenoreceptors and oposredovanno - by intensifying of production NO [Gilly R., 1976]. It is known, that such representatives of family monokinov as -1, the TNF and and -6, activate indutsibelnuju No-sintazu owing to what there is strengthened production NO. First of all it is bound to value NO in koordinirovannoj activation stress-realising and stress-limiting of systems and in interface among themselves nejrogumoralnoj and intracellular lines antistressornoj protection [Bulgakov V. A, Sentsova T.B., Balabolkin I. I, 2001]. Recently data that transformation of physiological effects NO in the pathophysiological depends on its interaction with metals with variable valency, with tiolami and superoksidnym a radical have been obtained. So, contacting superoksidnym a radical, NO forms peroksinitrit, that Chuchalin A.G., 1998] leads to damage of cellular DNA and RNK, to a deamination purine and pirimidinovyh the bases with the subsequent fragmentation of nucleic acids [. And it, in turn, causes NADF-DEPENDENT ADF - ribozilirovanie nuclear fibers - histones [Fedoseyev G. B, 1995].

the obtained data allow to assume, that at long informatsionnoemotsionalnom a strain, caused by processing of the big files of the information and a hypokinesia at work with the personal computer the syndrome of chronic weariness interfaced to intensity of protective systems TSNS and immune system develops. Also that these changes are aggravated at complication by an accompanying respiratorno-virus infection or a bronchial asthma. Thus almost at half

patients depression of level IgG, au 12 patients prinormalnom level is taped

immunoglobulins (IgG, M, A) presence of dysfunction of the T-link of immunity.

It is shown, that a target of toxic action of serious metals, chemical poisons and medicinal preparations first of all is respiratory the chain of mitochondrions on its various sites for the first time is approved vysokoinformativnyj and the readily available test of an estimation of toxicity on oppression of oxidation NADH, and also activity NAD # - methemoglobin reductases, tsitohromoksidazy, NAD #-oksidazy and \A1)//-cytochrome R 450 reductases, maintenances of cytochromes In samples will be investigated also the general antioxidatic and oksidantnaja activity, activity superoksiddismutazy, xanthine oxidases, catalases and glutationperoksidazy, and not enzymatic link of system of antioxidatic protection - the vitamin E and A.Aktivnost maintenance perekisnogo oxidations of lipids under the maintenance malonovogo a dialdehyde and resistance of lipids of high density to oxidation

It is supposed, that cytotoxicity of serious metals, the majority of chemical agents is caused by three interconnected mechanisms: oppression

mitohondrialnogo respirations of cells of a brain, kardiomotsitov, hepatocytes, nefrotsitov owing to change of a membrane potential of mitochondrions and disturbance of activity of enzymes respiratory a chain and cycle Krebsa; disturbance of a calcium homeostasis of a cell at the expense of change of an intracellular stream of calcium, replacement of calcium on specific receptors with the subsequent activation calcium-dependent proteoleticheskih enzymes intensifying perekisnogo oxidations of lipids both at the expense of depression of antioxidizing protection of a cell, and at the expense of immediate prooksidantnoj activity of some metals and chemical compounds. The combination of the specified changes against active employment with computers sharply amplifies

the Knowledge of pathogenetic mechanisms of cytotoxic action endoekologicheskih factors will allow to develop highly reliable, accessible clinics of test system of early diagnostics of an endogenous intoxication and to plan ways endoekologicheskoj aftertreatments of rising of resistance adaptativnyh systems of an organism of teenagers that will provide appreciable depression of a case rate at teenage age.

In the conclusion it is necessary to notice, that formed as a result of a metabolism in erythrocytes, no less than in somatic cells of various organs and tissues, reactive oksigennye radicals basically are utilised by means of enzymes antiradikalyjuj protection, therefore they should be surveyed as uniform system AFK - enzymatic system of antioxidatic protection. Such enzymatic reactions rather intensively participate in work own detoksikatsionnyh systems and
maintenance of reserve possibilities of system of power supply and antioxidatic protection. The key mechanism to which start is loss by cells ATF and NADF - N.Peroksinitrit oxidises also cellular lipids and fibers.

Thus it is necessary to underline, that besides enzymes of direct antiradical protection (superoksiddismutaza, a catalase, gljutatin-peroksidaza, etc.) in neutralisation AFK various traps of free radicals (not enzymatic link of system of antioxidatic protection) take part.

the Importance metabolichezhoj gnpcc at vo^al ^^ ^i x is shown at teenagers c ORVI and BA - the insignificant augmentation pp an index is taped, but at absence px changes co the parties cellular and p immunity. In the same p at patients stizhena activity glutamat - ISOCITRAS - and p blood lymphocytes, at augmentation p p--cp. On ostovanii p stizhenija p xpx cp at teenagers c BA and ORVI the augmentation p glitserol-z - cp and mitohondrialnoj SOD - as cp p, referred on additional ccp stimulation okistitelno - ccx p is possible for activity p p px protsestov lymphocytes, and. Taped p a metabolism of lymphocytes also define mizhenie their functions, that p to p p an immunodeficiency and xp diseases.

Catarrhal diseases, repeated infections of an ear, a throat, a nose, acute and chronic bronholegochnye infections make the basic list of diseases at children's age. In group BA it is accepted to carry children subject to frequent respiratory diseases in basic because of the transitional deviations and age features of immune system of a children's organism. Individual ability to interferonoobrazovanija IFN is genetically determined, and resistance to virus infections in many respects depends on interferon development.

Close interface of neuroendocrinal both immunologic mechanisms and participation of immunologically active bonds in realisation immuno-nejroendokrinnyh interactions, and disturbances of an exchange of monoamines and a serotonin can be pathogenetic factors of various immunologic disturbances. Are established difficult reguljatornye mutual relations as a feedback between -1 and glucocorticoid hormones, and itself -1 possesses direct action on gipotalamo - nejrogipofizarnuju system, causing activation of adrenocorticotropic function of a pituitary body with participation of adrenergic systems. It is shown, that synthesis gipofizarnyh
Oxytocinum and vasopressin neuropeptids, and also nejrofizina occurs in cells of a thymus and in cultures of lymphocytes. In lymphocytes these bonds possess properties interlejkina-2 (-2), growth of T-cages being the factor, and also influence a differentiation and proliferation T-dimfotsitov and accumulation in them at - interferon, a corticotropin and-endorphine. On a proliferation T - lymphocytes and biosynthesis of an immunoglobulin And () stimulating action is rendered by substance R and somatostatin, and immunomodulirujushchim action enkephalins and v-endorphine possess. Serious disease was characterised authentic (p< 0,02) level rising sIgA in a saliva at night in comparison with those at srednetjazhelom a current. Thus, at children and teenagers with night attacks P intensifying brozhospazma at night days is interfaced to the expressed augmentation of concentration sIgA, serumal IgJ in a saliva, testifying about participation of immunologic mechanisms in a pathogenesis of a night asthma.

the Following important component in damage of tissues is AFK. AFK are capable to react with the endogenous substrates forming structures of an organism, first of all with fosfolipidnymi membranes. Intermediate products the FLOOR do not render toxic and damaging action on an organism tissue: this action is rendered by end-products. Is free-radical oxidation proceeds in all organs and tissues and is normal metabolic process which is important for regulation of transport of substances through membranes, synthesis lejkotrienov and Prostaglandinums, a metabolism of steroid hormones and catecholamins etc. The hypoxia takes a leading place in stimulation of reactions svobodnoradikalnogo oxidation: its depth in many cases defines gravity and an outcome of many diseases. At a deep hypoxia the subsequent restoration of supply of tissues by oxygen, can promote the further damage of cellular structures as a result of activation AFK. The disturbances of a metabolism arising owing to a hypoxia, conduct to rising of level of free radicals. At infectious-allergic diseases the antioxidatic potential considerably decreases. The stablest and toxic is superoksidnyj anion: it has the direct and mediated an effect through other forms of oxygen. In researches of patients with a bronchial asthma it is established, that active development superoksida precedes augmentation of level of Prostaglandinum 2 and lejkotriena 4, that authentically correlates with depression of number of thrombocytes and leucocytes, augmentation tromboksana 2 and Prostaglandinum F2a which the augmentation of a respiratory index follows, shunt percent, depression of elasticity of lungs

Endothelin 1 is a peptide of endothelial cells which vasopressor an effect has, it is included in communications, with what in patofiziologiju various organnyh dysfunctions (acute renal insufficiency, reaction of an acute graft rejection, gepatorenalnyj a syndrome, a toxic shock etc.) And also in formation of a primary pulmonary hypertensia. At normal physiology lungs are a place of destruction of endothelin: as a result of damage of lungs this function is broken and there is an additional remission of endothelin - 1 in circulation, the augmentation bronhokonstriktornoj activity and depression of a pulmonary extensibility thus becomes perceptible. The pulmonary vasoconstriction is mediated through remission tromboksana. -1 can activate also neutrophils within pulmonary capillaries that concerns augmentation of vascular permeability. prepolagaetsja, that endothelin-1 strengthens development of free oxygen radicals and can activate coagulation system.

Thus, the pathogenesis of a bronchial asthma has strongly pronounced multifactorial character and is bound to activation of a complement and neutrophils, dysfunction of reticuloendothelial system, action microbic endotoxins, reperfuzionnymi disorders, activation svobodnoradikalnyh processes. For bronchuses and a lung the lesion first of all interstitsija, pauperisation by its fibers by elastin and a fibronectin, accumulation in it of water and plasma fibers is characteristic.

If process not to stop, not cardiogenic alveolar edema develops. In far come stages the hylin gets into alveoluses, hyaline membranes develop, there is a true disturbance of diffusion of gases through an alveolo-capillary membrane.

it is necessary to underline, that formation of concept "preillness" and doctrine development about biomarkers not only is expedient, but also it is necessary, as they meet the requirements of the modern public health services focused on primary preventive maintenance of diseases by timely improvement of practically healthy teenagers, population as a whole. In this connection the establishment with use by a method of demonstrative medicine of biological markers of formation of a condition of "preillness" and revealing of risk factors is a necessary condition of working out of diagnostic criteria raspoznovanija such conditions, and rational lechebnoprofilakticheskih actions. Nozoologichesky diagnostics based on accumulation of some the symptoms which combination defines the concrete clinical diagnosis existing today causes the is passive-expectant relation of doctors to disease development at prepainful stages. There was a necessity of judgement
and developments of new approaches to "preillness" revealing that is possible on the basis of detection of separate clinical symptoms, revealings of biological (biochemical) characteristic markers and their elimination to generated nozoologicheskogo the diagnosis. Semichov S.B. (1984) underlines, that " preillness can specify in action of mechanisms and the conditions already forming illness, the stage of disease can be surveyed as naipervejshaja and can testify to safety of protective forces of the organism referred on to admitting development ". It is impossible to disagree with Century T. Mitin (1990), that the "preillness" pathogenesis is difficult for comprehending out of communication with mechanisms of adaptation, compensatory reactions in reply to stressornoe influence, resistance formations through illness, and also hypothesis I.V, Davydovsky that at limiting height or acuteness of development these reactions usually pass in the contrast. Thus if in one cases the same etiological factor can participates in formation and preillness and the illness in other situations the aetiology of these phenomena can be absolutely various. As one of examples it is possible to result the following. Infections top respiratory putejprivodjat to a hyperreactivity of bronchuses, which podtverzhaetsja povyshennnoj chuvtstvitelnostju to cholinergic agents, Histaminum, inhalation of cold air, physical nagrukze, to Sodium nitritum, ozone. The hyperreactivity of bronchuses accompanies both naturally arising infections of the top respiratory tracts, and experimentally reproduced infections caused by rhinoviruses. The condition of a hyperreactivity of bronchuses makes one of leading mechanisms of a preasthma which can be transformed to an asthma in the presence of an organism sensibilization to those or other allergens. In that case if the immune answer providing ssensibilizatsiju of an organism besides the infectious agent which has caused a condition of a hyperreactivity of bronchuses the etiological factor of a preasthma and a bronchial asthma will appear same is formed. If the sensibilization is generated to other allergens (infectious or not infectious) it is clear, that as etiological factors of "preillness" and disease different influences will act.

According to Borzova S.P., Polozhij B.S. (1992) only at 31,7 % of younger schoolboys it was not revealed any signs of disturbances of health, 29,4 % were made by schoolboys with the raised risk of occurrence of psychological disorders, and at 38,9 % those or other forms of psychological disorders have been taped. Kagan V. E (1984) specifies, that cases of the psychogenic form of a school disadaptation meet at 15-20 % of pupils. According to Samoukinoj N.V., with the training beginning at school 30 % of children
have specific reactions: pavors, aggression, the hysterical reactions, the raised tearfulness, block, hyperactivity, uneasiness. Strekalova

H. I (1995) writes that after 5-6 years of training at school the number nevrotizirovannyh reaches schoolboys of 80 %. Thus illness occurrence can occur at any additional functional loads, under the influence of adverse factors, for example, an overstrain in examinations which tap mental intensity or already partial disadaptation, and this cohort will pass in a category of the schoolboys demanding immediate correction of a condition. Thus, findings-out of pathogenetic mechanisms of "preillness" and revealing of biological markers of these conditions, and also an establishment of those initial changes in an organism which precede not only to illness occurrence, but also formation of pathological process are an actual direction not only the medicine theory, but also practical public health services, pediatrics which waits for the decision.

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Scientific source INGA MAMUCHISHVILI. INTERRELATION STRESS-INDUCED of DISTURBANCES In nejrogumoralnoj to SYSTEM And SYSTEM of POWER SUPPLY At TEENAGERS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of medical sciences. Tbilisi - 2006. 2006

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  1. CONCLUSIONS
  2. Conclusions
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  4. CONCLUSIONS:
  5. Chapter 8. The CONCLUSION
  6. THE CONCLUSION
  7. CONCLUSIONS
  8. THE CONCLUSION
  9. CONCLUSIONS
  10. THE CONCLUSION
  11. CONCLUSIONS
  12. the CONCLUSION
  13. THE CONCLUSION
  14. CONCLUSIONS
  15. THE CONCLUSION
  16. Chapter 4 the Conclusion
  17. THE CONCLUSION