the Appendix № 4 Projective technique «the Kinetic drawing of a family»

Under the name «Kinetic drawing of a family» (it - «a family Drawing») unite to group of various projective techniques for an estimation of intrafamily relations. Techniques are based on the analysis and interpreting of drawings.

They can be applied as to inspection of children (basically), and in the senior age groups.

Historically technique use «a family Drawing» is bound to the general development of "projective psychology», an event in second half HH century Growth of interest of practising psychologists to risunochnym to techniques has occurred after publication of fundamental monographies on K.Mahovera's given subjects (K. Machover, 1949) and J. A beech (J. Buck, 1948). In 1950-1960th risunochnye techniques became very popular among psychologists-experts. As noted N.Sandberga (N. Sundberg, 1961), one of these techniques - the test of a drawing of person K.Mahover in hospitals of the USA on frequency of application was on the second place after the test of maculae Rorshaha (psychotrouble-shooting test for research of the person, framed in 1921 the Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist Herman Rorshahom (a nem. Hermann Rorschach), it is known also under the name «Maculae Rorshaha»). In 60th years the technique «a family Drawing» became very popular among psychologists-clinical physicians, especially, working with children, has extended in various geographical regions of the world. A priority in its application bind to different names and the countries (in the USA - V.Hjuls, in France - I.Minkovsky, M.Poro). In the works R.Burns and S.Kaufman (R. Burns, S. Kaufman, 1972), however, specify, that the earliest mention in the literature on application of "a family Drawing» belongs to V.Hjulsu (W. Hulse, 1951). Not going deep into historical details, we will notice, that the technique «a family Drawing» has old roots and with a view of a psychodiagnosis is applied already more half a century [205].

The developed system analysis and interpreting of "a family Drawing» was given in the works by the psychologist V.Woolf. At a preschool stage it attached to influence of a family on development of the person of the child leading significance. It also had been developed various techniques for diagnostics and an estimation of the intrafamily relations, one of which the projective technique is - «Draw the family», it - «a family Drawing» (W. Wolff, 1947). Having generalised all material saved up by then, Robert Burns (R. Burns, the English psychologist who was engaged in theoretical working out of concept "JA-concept") and Samaria Kaufman (S. Kaufman, the psychologist) in 1972 have given the modern description and technique interpreting «the Kinetic drawing of a family». It began to use for diagnostics of intrafamily relations from the point of view of the child [70, 205].

Technique materials. The paper blank leaf (format А4) is necessary for drawing performance, ground graphitic ("idle time") a pencil 2М, lastik (last should be used extremely ogranichenno). The examinee can be offered colour pencils (it is desirable to use the same 8 colours,
As in a technique «the Magic country of feelings»). The child conveniently have behind a table, inform on forthcoming psychological testing, explain, that it is necessary to make.

The instruction: «Draw the family so that its members have been occupied by something».

In the research report fix time of performance of the task, all questions and statements of the examinee during drawing, deletings (it is desirable to exclude them), amendments and other.

posletestovoe interview can include following questions, for example:

1) Who is drawn in a drawing?

2) That each member of a family does?

3) Where they are?

4) to It it is cheerful or boring?

5) Who from them the happiest and why?

6) Who the most unfortunate, why?

For revealing positive and uncooperative altitudes in a family the child except questions can be offered the decision of several situational problems:

1. Imagine, that you have two tickets in circus. Whom would call to go with itself?

2. Present, that all your family goes on a visit, but one of you was ill and should remain at home. Who it?

3. You build the house (you cut out a paper dress for a doll) of the designer and it is impossible to you. Whom will you call to the aid?

4. You have «N» number of tickets (on one less, than members in a family) on very interesting motion picture. Who remains at home?

5. Imagine, that you have got on a desert island. With whom you would wish to live there?

6. You have received as a gift an interesting board game. All family has sat down to play, but you on one person more than it is necessary. Who will not play?

Interpreting of results

The analysis of structure of a drawing. Begin the analysis by comparison of structure of the drawn family with the real. If the family is drawn with its full complement is a sign of emotional well-being of a family. When in a drawing the family is represented not completely, it can mean discontent with a family situation, presence of the emotionally negatively painted verbal contacts in a family and even aggression. When in a drawing in general there are no people or when the drawn people not svjazanny with a family, can testify:

• about certain traumatic experiences concerning a family;

• about feeling of isolation, forlornness (for example, it is characteristic for children from children's home);

• about an autism;

• about the high level of uneasiness bound to feeling of safety;

• about absence of contact between the researcher and the patient.

Reduction of structure of a family in a drawing bind that the child does not draw those who less all is emotionally attractive to it or with whom it has conflicts. On a question why this or that member of a family is not drawn, children often give evasive answers of protective character: «has not sufficed
Places "," I am afraid, it badly will turn out "," has forgotten »etc. Instead of them children at times represent subjects of a life, animals or birds.

If the surveyed does not draw itself as a part of a family or, on the contrary, draws only itself without a family is means absence of feeling of a generality in a family, a unification and unity. In a case when the child draws only itself speaks in addition depending on drawing "context":

- If it decorates the image in a drawing a considerable quantity of details, accessories and other, and also does the image very big it can testify about isteroidnyh character traits and to presence egotsentrichnosti;

- If drawing size small in aggregate with a negative emotional background it is a sign of isolation, forlornness, sometimes - auticheskih tendencies.

When the child in a drawing enlarges family structure can testify to such tendencies, as:

• dissatisfaction of psychological requirement for co-operative communications equal in rights, that is desire to have for dialogue of the child of the same age (the brother, sister);

• requirement to be in a society of other people;

• desire to take of a parent, ohranjajushche-supervising position in relation to other children if in a drawing in family structure the animal or a bird is included;

• requirement for the person, capable to satisfy aspiration to close emotional contact;

• symbolical destruction of integrity of a family, original revenge to parents owing to sensation of isolation, uselessness.

The locating of members of a family in a drawing and feature of their interaction also is of great importance. If the family is drawn with its full complement, with the arms bridged between its members or when the family is engaged in by one business is signs of unity, emotional well-being in a family, an inclusiveness of the child in this situation. To low level of emotional communications in a family testify: dissociation of members of a family in a drawing, the big distance between them, the families placed between members various subjects, walls or their images when everyone is as though fenced off from others (for example, the father with the newspaper, mother with a plate or an ironing table, the grandmother at the TV).

Children represent especially unpleasant characters otdalenno from others or are located in a framework. If the child draws itself away from others it testifies to feeling of loneliness and estrangement. When members of a family are involved in any competitive game (for example, in a ball) is testifies, that the child recognises existence of communication, mutual interest between them, and also rivalry presence for influence in a family. When the ball in a drawing is between two or several characters, it specifies in balance of love and rivalry of intrafamily relations. The ball located about a head of one of members of a family testifies, that the child recognises behind it the leader, active and a main role in home life. When the ball is at feet of any member of a family - a sign of its inadequate role in the course of education and rivalry.

Also it is necessary to pay attention to sequence and features of the image of members of a family. The most significant for the child the character is usually drawn by one of the first, often has big in comparison with other characters the sizes, more carefully and detalizovano is worked. Accordingly time most part is spent for it. Thus in the course of drawing the child can repeatedly come back to this character, dorisovyvat it, supplement with details, correct.

By means of incomplete (for example, without any part of a body provided that I was not present a similar mutilation at a prototype) or not detailed image the uncooperative altitude to any of members of a family can be expressed. Shading application in the image of a member of a family testifies to conflicts in relations or absence of affective communications more often. Pauses and doubts before the image of the similar character are similarly treated. It is necessary to notice, that the figure of the child (the author of a drawing) in comparison with other characters can be various. In that case when the figure of the author of a drawing is more or on a level with next it testifies to competition for love of one of parents with other parent, the brother or sister. If the figure of the child is much less than others provided that similar is not present actually it is a sign of sensation of the insignificance or the demand of care from parents (with implied sense «I small - care of me!» ). As carefully and precisely, in what stylistics and in the form of whom the child represents itself, it is possible to establish with whom it itself identifies, whether it corresponds to age and a floor.

In complex estimations of a drawing its symbolics has great value. The mud image (the dirty plates heaped on kitchen, dirty things in a room, a heap of dirty leaves in a garden, dirty maculae on a floor etc.) is a symbol of internal anxiety of the child because of the moments unpleasant for it: internal disharmony, its actions and the behaviour, causing in it feeling of fault etc. the cold Image (winter, ice, water, snow, a refrigeration cabinet etc.) Sign of depressive mood at present or for a long time. To this sign also can testify the image of a bed with sleeping in them sleeping and-or sick people laying in them provided that the child identifies itself with them. As rivalry symbols images of games, competitions, the equipment, fighting animals or people often act. Flowers and butterflies are symbols of real or desirable calmness and serenity. The globule image on a string, a paper dragon testifies to feeling of the excessive control, pressure from adults of which the child tries to get rid. As signs of the obvious or latent aggression the weapon, a hammer, selhozinventar (a rake, mattocks, bayonet shovels), wild animals act. Similar symbolics the image of a cell, lattices at windows or even a cot drawing (as carries a symbol of "capture", punishment, imprisonment). Drawing of traffic signs - a sign of restraint of emotions, submission to rules (at times, violent) which are imposed the child in larger degree by the organised children's collective (a kindergarten, school). Power and threat symbolics the image of a broom, a broom, vybivalki a dust from things, a vacuum cleaner, building technics (lorries, dredges, cocks), trains, the big buildings hanging over a head possess. The subjects dangerous to a life represented between members of a family (the weapon, even toy, scissors, table knifes etc.) represent itself as symbols of aggression, existence of factors of rivalry between relatives.

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Scientific source MIRONOV ANDREY ANATOLEVICH. the CLINICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSTANTIATION of APPLICATION of the METHOD of FUNCTIONAL BIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT At CHILDREN With the EMICTION PATHOLOGY. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of medical sciences. Moscow - 2014. 2014

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Other medical related information the Appendix № 4 Projective technique «the Kinetic drawing of a family»:

  1. features of a tuberculinodiagnosis on a Mantoux reaction 2 THOSE in modern conditions
  2. the Bronchial asthma and a tobacco smoking
  4. Chapter 1 the literature Review
  5. Chapter 2 Base, the program, a research technique
  6. Appendices
  8. techniques of psychological diagnostics.
  9. volume of observations and the executed researches.
  10. psychological features of children with disorders MI and SNFTO before treatment.
  11. results of psychological testing of children with a pathology of an emiction and SNFTO by means of projective techniques and their estimation.
  12. a projective technique «the Magic country of feelings» on Zinkevich-Evstigneevoj, an estimation of results.
  13. a projective technique «the Kinetic drawing of a family», an estimation of results.