influence of stressful factors on development of diseases.

Into physiology and psychology the term "stress" the first was entered by the American psychophysiologist U.Kennon (1932) using it in the works on universal reaction of organisms [230, 306].

However representation about physiological stress (from English stress - a strain) as about the general adaptic syndrome (OAS) was formulated for the first time by the Canadian scientific G.Sele (1936) [176, 177]. In a basis of the theory of G.Sele works of scientific XIX century of K.Spengler (idea of limiting factors, 1828), background Libiha (1840), J have laid down.

Holdlejna (bases of evolutionary principles of an optimality, 1927).

According to G.Sele's concept (1936, 1946, 1960, 1961, 1979), the stress represents a special condition of an organism which results from influence on it of any stimuluses menacing to a homeostasis. Thus there is an activation and mobilisation of nonspecific adaptive mechanisms and the reactions necessary for adaptation to the operating factor. As stress factors (the agent who causes stress) external or internal stimuluses which potentially threaten often act or really break internal medium of an organism. Thus, any unexpected event breaking a habitual current of a life of the individual, can cause stress. Today to stressovram carry not only conditions menacing lives (a serious trauma, a poisoning, infections etc.), but also various psychosocial,
Industrial, household difficulties which are necessary for overcoming, a painful syndrome, an excessive exercise stress, influence of high or low temperatures, hunger, an adynamia, a hypoxia and even unpleasant memoirs [141, 176, 193, 196, 206].

In OAS, arising at stress, allocate three phases: alarm, resistance and attrition. It is important, that depending on conditions in which realizuetsjastress, the adaptation syndrome influences an organism as positively (for example, at two-dimensional resistance), and is negative (for example, at a two-dimensional sensibilization). Thus the adaptic syndrome represents not pathological, but physiological reaction which has protective character. However, in case of disharmony of the adaptic syndrome arising in reply to influence of the pathogenic agent, adaptation diseases can be generated. A variety of variants of the pathological changes arising at adaptation diseases, is bound first of all to features of factors of a sensibilization of the organism, previous stressful influence. Hence, under the influence of stress of disease are formed only at set of the adverse factors interfering normal (natural) development OAS [140, 177, 202].

Thus, for stress realisation character of the demand shown to an organism is not important is can be either unexpected pleasure, or a conflict situation menacing to a life, or any phenomenon forming a negative emotional condition (pavor, sincere discomfort, etc.). Development of stressful reaction is not influenced also by force stressornogo influences. As a determinative features of a stress factor serve in the given situation: whether makes a stimulus additional demands to an organism, whether causes requirement to adaptation, including of new adaptive mechanisms. Thus expression of the stressful reaction, developing in the answer, depends on intensity, duration, frequency of influence of the irritating factor, and also from adaptic potential of an organism and its adaptive possibilities [3, 33, 141, 176, 253].

It is established, that various stress-limiting mechanisms are realised in an organism at the expense of activation of adrenergic and gipofizarno-adrenal systems. They in turn form functional systems which are responsible for adaptation. Thus stress-limiting of system serve for immediate protection of an organism against direct damages, and also activly participate in modelling of emotional behaviour of the person [1, 79, 177, 202].

The emotional sphere of the person is the most vulnerable to influence of damaging factors of stress that is caused by involving of emotions in arhitektoniku any purposeful behavioural certificate. As a result vegetative functional systems, and also their specific endocrine maintenance which regulates behavioural reactions [3, 32, 121, 177, 193] are activated.

The emotional stress represents set of reactions of neurones TSNS in reply to influence various nejromediatorov and the neuropeptids activated by limbiko-GIPOTALAMO-reticular system. Regular influences or long duration of affective reactions against the tightened
Vital disorders can lead to formation of the congestive stationary form of emotional excitation. Thus even normalisation of a surrounding situation and stress factor levelling will not lead to weakening of congestive emotional excitation, and a human body as the open self-regulated system, passes to new level of the development [196, 202]. The generated congestive emotional excitation is dynamic structure which regularly activates the central structures of vegetative nervous system and through them breaks functioning of internal organs and systems. Thus, if in an organism there is a pathology in organ or system work during stressful reaction it becomes the key factor in disease development [1, 4, 24, 61, 140, 196].

At children and teenagers psychosomatic disturbances are shown as in the form of independent nosological units in which basis emotional (affective) disorders lay, and in aggregate with others psychosomatic sostojanmi which are accompanied by affective (depressive) implications. Any psychosomatic disturbances make appreciable impact on formation of the person of the child and its socialisation. Thus the psychogenic component of accompanying somatic disturbances makes heavier a current and frequently deforms implications of the basic somatopathy, interferes with its adequate therapy and worsens the forecast [2, 5, 14, 155, 189].

In most cases the reason of various emotional stresses are social factors. At the child their frequency is enlarged in process of a growing, including in new social groups (a family-parents, a kindergarten, school, institute/university, work, a family-children). Scientific and technical progress, dynamic augmentation of rates of a life, uncontrollable ascending of information streams and assotsiirovannye with them the information overloads, an accruing urbanization, general introduction of the video control, the broken bionomics etc. Any even seeming at first sight insignificant emotional stress Also promotes it, is capable to have on an organism of the child strong influence, and on the contrary. It is bound to individual fastness to emotional stress: one are predisposed to it, and others - are steady. But not only the emotional stress is capable to lead to development in the child clinically expressed neurologic and-or somatopathies. Here have important value certain conditions to which carry mental and biological features of the child, its social environment, and also characteristics of events which have entailed serious emotional reactions of an organism [16, 24, 99, 121, 156, 282, 321].

Thus, stressful influence is capable to become a releaser of development of a somatic pathology that is rather actual in pediatrics. Regular use at schools of psychodiagnostic techniques for the purpose of depression revealing stressoustojchivosti children allows to diagnose in due time available deviations already at early stages that is the important action for preventive maintenance of psychosomatic diseases at podrostajushchego generations. Not unimportant value at the present stage gets revealing and elimination of stressful influences on an organism of the child in surrounding it
Space, that also is paramount and actually problem of parents, teachers, psychologists and doctors with a view of preventive maintenance of various somatic and psychosomatic pathologies.


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Scientific source MIRONOV ANDREY ANATOLEVICH. the CLINICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUBSTANTIATION of APPLICATION of the METHOD of FUNCTIONAL BIOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT At CHILDREN With the EMICTION PATHOLOGY. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of medical sciences. Moscow - 2014. 2014

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