Fizilogichesky mechanisms of stress both damaging stressornaja a situation and adaptation to it.

the Diverse situations causing serious and long stress, fraught with damage of internal organs, finally, are reduced to the conflict between imperative requirement of immediate realisation of defensive, alimentary, sexual reactions and an insuperable interdiction for them [Fukenstein S., 1957].

In the bare and bared form this conflict reproduce, subjecting animals to a pain stimulation and simultaneously depriving of their possibility to leave from a pain. This conflict is more difficult when the person is exposed to the influences of social medium menacing to its existence or advantage, and the answer to response is imposed by other conditions which demand endurance in avoidance still larger danger [Kennon V, 1927].

The more the advanced specific events is in evolutionary chains, the the brain [by Orbeli L.A., 1938] is more strongly developed. People are characterised by the highest level of the contribution of a brain in information processing, difficult social skills, people
especially sotsialny and optimum conditions for their functioning usually demand presence "significant others". Because of well organised mentality and a training wide experience, thin social stimulus can affect their self-respect [Oleskin A.V., 1999 and,]. The specific nature of aforementioned relations forces a brain to perceive presence "significant others" as stimulus of safety and pleasure [Ashmarin I.P., 2001; Bazjan A.S., 1999]. Other usual form of psychological stress is bound to threat of self-respect of an individual. Such threat frames a condition of fear loss to environment. People strongly differ concerning subjective perception of threat, and that vulnerability of an individual to stress is defined by balance between two various forces, namely, stress and flexibility. Genetic factors and environment influence, especially during the critical periods of development, bring the contribution to psychological characteristics of each individual [Buresh L, Bureshova O, Houston of J., 1991; Veltishchev J.E., Fokeeva V.V., 2001; Gelman V. JA, Kremenevskaja S.I., 1990].

Emotions are regulated by limbic system. Sensory thalamic kernels participate in this adjustment, basolateral and an amygdaloid nucleus, a bluish place, a hippocampus and a hypothalamus. The same complex of structures of a brain participates in stressful nejrotsikle, that can explain, why emotional threats, are especially effective in mobilisation of system of the answer to stress at people [Sudakov K.V., 1981].

Some factors which define the answer of an individual to stress, it is supposed can be inherited quantitative genetics of human behaviour [Spitsyn V. A. 1991]. By some estimations, approximately from half to two thirds of differences in lines of individuality, are defined by genetic factors. Genetic polymorphism and clinically essential changes of an expression of genes are involved in adjustment of system of the answer to stress. The essential quantity of differences of the answer to stress depends on environment, including events in an early life and later events with variables or constant effects. Infancy, the childhood and a youth - the periods of the enlarged cerebral plasticity. Pathological activation of system of the answer to stress during these critical periods can have deep effect on its function, leading to predisposition to pathological conditions [Simonov P.

V, 1987]. In these stages of development,

psychosocial traumas actuate the cascade of mental changes which often come to an end with the remote predisposition to anxiety, depression or to other illnesses bound to stress [Healy D., 1997; Leonard L.E., 1989]. Despite
a weak level of scrutiny of this phenomenon, in several researches communication between activity gipotalamo-gipofizarnoj an axis and anxiety and mood [has been shown Garkavi L.H., Kvakina E.B., Kuzmenko T.S., 1998].

the Endurance, really, appears provided by a critical strain of mechanisms of cortical inhibition, but thus braked or modified there is only an external behavioural component of reactions. Its internal vegetative component, stress-reaction mobilisation of functions of a circulation, breath etc. Remains and even it can appear more intensive and long, than at realisation of the most behavioural of reactions. This situation, is surveyed in I.P.Pavlova's (1952) works, G.F.Langa (1948, 1950), P.K.Anohina (1948) and other researchers, should be characterised, in particular that the reaction strengthened stress - is shown long and substantial increase of concentration of catecholamins and glucocorticoids in blood.

the Answer of neuroendocrinal system, allocation of media even bonds and the subsequent disturbance of a cellular and extracellular metabolism depend on volume, duration and character of a damaging stress factor. Though exact interaction of answers to damage completely is not studied till now, their possible patterns are known. These patterns become perceptible in the subsystems including an axis "hypothalamus-hypophysis", vegetative (or independent) nervous system, classical hormones, media even bonds with local (pair-krinnym) and the general (endocrine) action, products of a metabolism of endotheliocytes and intracellular molecular shaperony.

Cuthbertson and co-workers. (2002) two phases of damage of metabolic answers of patients have allocated for damage in time, outflow and inflow phases (fig. 3).

a Fig. 3. Phases of outflow and inflow of the answer to damage (Cuthbertson in updating Moore)

the outflow Phase corresponds to immediate consequences of damage which reduce a metabolic cost in rest. In an outflow phase become perceptible reduction of volume of circulating blood (for example, at a bleeding), volume of circulating plasma (for example, at a burn disease) and/or loss of effective circulating volume (for example, losses in the so-called third space, resulting traumatizings of a tissue). These changes can cause sekvestrirovanie blood cells or a shock. Depression of vascular resistance is perceived by baroreceptors and the receptors reacting to a stretching, and stimulates nervous reflexes through sympathetic nervous system, and also activates allocation of catecholamins, arginin-vazopressina and angiotensin II. Allocation of hormones is modulated by a number of bonds (tab. 1).

the Table

1. Neuroendocrinal answers

on damage

Allocation of hormones is strengthened Allocation of hormones is lowered or not changed
Epinephrinum V-endorfin Insulin
Norepinephrinum a growth Hormone Estrogens
Dofaminum Prolactinum Testosteron-Depotum

TSljukagon Somatostatin the Thyroxine
the Renin Ejkozanridy Trijodtironin
Angiotensin II Histaminum the Thyritropic hormone
AKTG Kininy the Follicle-stimulating hormone
the Hydrocortisone the Serotonin the Luteinizing hormone
Aldosteronum Интерлейкин-1
Arginin-vazopressin the Factor of a necrosis of tumours the Insulinoid factor of growth

the inflow Phase corresponds to the period of indemnification with augmentation of rate of metabolic processes and the activity of enzymes referred on production of a glucose and accordingly on restoration of volume of circulating blood, stimulation of immune system and production hepatic ostrofazovyh fibers and intracellular molecular shaperonov, named fibers of a thermal shock. Later, if compensatory reactions prevail, a metabolic cost decreases, and the exchange gets further an anabolic orientation. Healing of wounds, growth of again formed capillaries, reorganisation of a tissue and restoration of the lost function occur during a long time interval.

During such modelling it was found out, that degree of stresses-reactions and arising damages essentially increases, if the additional influences strengthening activation of the apparatus of emotions [Selye G accumulate on the basic elementary conflict, 1979]. Additional influences are signals, in advance

notifying on inevitable painful blow, drawing of blows through the casual not too short time intervals generating expectation of a pain, interfaced to alarm and pavor [Sudakov K.V., 1998]. Similar value has introduction, besides basic "conflict", additional: pain drawing in reply to the developed alimentary reaction or in reply to reaction with which help to an animal it was possible to leave from danger earlier. At least, two emotional factors the disturbing expectation caused by the warning about a pain, and the conflict between instinctive reflexes or between former experience and a reality sharply strengthen stress-reaction in framed experimentally desperate situations and burden damaging action of stress. It is easy to notice, that similar factors can play a role in
the difficult social collisions causing stress-syndrome and stressornye of disease at the person [Oleskin A.V., 1999].

the Big role in stress-realising systems and in development stressornyh damages belongs to adrenergic regulation (fig. 4). It is shown, that in dynamics of development of reactions adrenergic and gipofizarno-adrenalovoj systems on stress Malyshev V.V. is found out three periods [., Etc., 1982 and]. During the first period from the moment of the beginning of emotionally-painful influence and throughout 36-39 ch after its termination, in 34 times concentration of Corticosteronum in a blood plasma and organs raises, in 1,52 times the maintenance of catecholamins decreases in heart and adrenals, synthesis and nejronalnyj capture of labelled Noradrenalinum is oppressed in these organs, the expressed eosinopenia develops. During the second period through 39-45 ch after the action termination stressornogo the factor, in a blood plasma, in organs concentration of Corticosteronum sharply decreases and the eosinophilia develops. In the third period throughout the next 67 days, indicators of a functional condition adrenergic and gipofizarno - adrenal systems gradually come nearer to the initial.

a Fig. 4. Neuroendocrinal regujatsija

Under the influence of this emotionally-painful influence there are influences gradually progressing and proceeding after end activation perekisnogo oxidations of lipids (FLOOR), depression of the maintenance of a glycogen in a myocardium, dissociation of processes of oxidation and fosforilirovanija in the mitochondrions allocated from a cardiac muscle. The deepest disturbances of function of mitochondrions of heart in the form of depression of intensity of breath and fosforilirovanija develop to 45 ch after the termination stressornogo influences, coincide with the peak of an eosinopenia which is coming to the end with an eosinophilia [Asteria M., 1984; McEwen B., 1999].


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Scientific source INGA MAMUCHISHVILI. INTERRELATION STRESS-INDUCED of DISTURBANCES In nejrogumoralnoj to SYSTEM And SYSTEM of POWER SUPPLY At TEENAGERS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of medical sciences. Tbilisi - 2006. 2006

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