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2.2.1. A condition stress-limiting of systems of teenagers at informatsionnoemotsionalnom an overstrain and the general mechanisms of adaptation of teenagers to various extreme and ecological factors.

In modern conditions of vital activity the child and the teenager constantly is exposed to influence of viruses, the pathogenic bacteria, the practically constantly increased maximum permissible concentration of two-three toxic substances, the superfluous or insufficient maintenance of trace substances, serious metals, sources ionising and neionizirujushchih.

However the maximum permissible concentration of harmful substances established in the world and serious metals define safe level for the person only this or that substance or metal separately, and gathered even in microdoses, they repeatedly strengthen toxic action each other. Thus subcellular mechanisms sochetannogo influences various ekopatogennyh factors on an organism of teenagers remain practically not studied Pollution of an environment and bionomics crisis have generated pollution and crisis of internal medium of an organism. The pollution of an organism generated by ecological and other factors breaking a homeostasis (defects of a food, stresses, bad habits, etc.) complicates a current of illnesses. The medicine of teenagers constantly faces the perverted current of illnesses, unpredictable action of medicinal preparations. Therefore maintenance of health of rising generation and working out of ways of rising of adaptic possibilities of an organism to the developed ecological conditions, and also working out of adequate methods of diagnostics of efficiency of systems neutralised consequences of influence of toxic substances is the major problem of pediatrics.

toxic substances Arriving in an organism collect in pericellular space. The organism does not own specific mechanisms of adaptation - mechanisms of neutralisation and excision of these bonds from this space. All it has set the task of purification of ecological space of cells of an organism, has led to development of a new direction endoekologii - sciences about purification of internal medium of an organism, and first of all in an organism of the child and the teenager.

the Radical decision of a question consists in creation of methods of diagnostics and working out of ways endoekologicheskoj aftertreatments, purifications and-or neutralisations with activation adaptativnyh organism systems exo - and endogenous toxins, for example, formed under the influence of viruses and pathogenic bacteria). In development of the mechanism of failure of adaptation of an organism to various consequences of an endogenous intoxication
depression of functional activity natural detoksitsirujushchih organism systems is (deducing of substances from cells and tissues in blood, excision from blood and external deducing, appreciable depression of augmentation of rate of formation is natural eliminirujushchih substances at the maximum rate of their deducing.

Besides, necessity of the adaptation of an organism of the teenager and to new factors of medium, is combined with the stressful factors bound to interpersonal relations, since entering in preschool institutions, educational process, use of modern tutorials, in particular, with wide introduction in practice of training of computer technics. It shows increased requirements to adaptativnym to mechanisms of activity of visceral and behavioural systems. Set of the changes observed in a state of health of teenagers continuously more of 6 hours in day engaged with computer includes locomotorium diseases (arms, a neck, a back, a shoulder girdle, bound to a hypodynamia and the compelled working pose), sight organs (exact visual works on the shone screen in the conditions of difference of brightness in sight, presence of flickers, instability and an illegibility of images) [Avetisov E.S., Rozenbljum J.Z., Kornjushena T.A.

1995], independent nervous system (long-term cortical synchronisation of projective zones of visual system negatively influences a functional condition okruzhajushih zones and brain structures) [Tarasova L.A., Mukhin G. N, Lagutin G. N, Matjuhina V.V., 1995; Pike perches To. V, 1995, 1998], the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, a gastroenteric tract [Demirchogljan G. G, 1997]. Negative influence renders constant hum at the computer, the broken ionic regimen, adverse indicators of a microclimate (in air chemical substances can contain: ozone, Phenolum, styrene, to a formic aldehyde dr) [Demirchogljan G. G, 1997]. And at last, work with video display terminals is bound to influence of static electric and impulsive electromagnetic fields of the low and ultralow frequency exceeding admissible borders of parametres of not ionising electromagnetic radiations, that together with a high emotional pressure essentially changes activity TSNS, conducts to development of neurosises, neurocirculatory dystonias, hypo-and hypertonias [Muratov E.I., 1996; Polonnikov R. I, 1997; Tarasova L.A., Mukhin G. N, Lagutin G. N, Matjuhina V.V., 1995]. At teenagers it is long engaged with computers allergic diseases are observed, level of a case rate of organs of breath that Demirchogljan G. G speaks, apparently, depression reserve protective immune system [1997] raises. Studying of the factors causing transition of teenagers was the purpose of the present work is long and is constant
subject = to a strain caused by work with computer technics and the Internet, in group often and-or is long ill teenagers [Lyskov E.B., Medvedev S.V., Sandstrem M, 1995] and revealing of subcellular targets in immune system and system of power maintenance to sochetannomu to influence various stressornyh reactions formed at long information-emotional a strain at work with the computer.

It has appeared, that at an intensive load (work with the computer) at 16 from 22 development " becomes perceptible; a computer visual syndrome (a burning sensation in eyes; feelings " " under centuries; pains in the field of orbits and a forehead; oxycinesias of eyes; reddening of eyeballs) which passes after 3 - 4 hour rest. After 8 months of a hard work at 77,3 % of the surveyed teenagers constant headaches, giddiness at 3,2 %, periodic depression of visual acuity and doubling of reddening of eyes at 49 %, pains in the field of cervical vertebra at 35 %, fast fatigue become perceptible at work at 23,5 %, a frequent cold at 63,6 %, an osteochondrosis of cervical vertebra (static work and repeating movements) - at 56 %. A periodic tachycardia - at 86,5 %, feeling of a nausea - at 23 %, almost at all after a long load raise on 10-20 mm hg Digits of arterial pressure, at 12 surveyed teenagers have appeared complaints to appetite depression, at 17 - on difficulty a backfilling, at 16 - on memory depression, at 18 - on attention depression in comparison with the beginning of academic year, and 18 note hypererethism and fast change of mood. After 2 monthly summer holidays in the beginning of academic year of the complaint to a periodic headache remain all with 10,5 % of teenagers, on feeling of a nausea - at 3 %, on a Bouveret's disease - 5 %, an asthenopia - at 2,5 %. Appetite normalisation becomes perceptible practically at all teenagers, difficulty of a backfilling remains at 3 %, fast unpredictable change of mood at 3 %, on fast fatigability - at 2 %, on memory depression - at 5 %, attention - at 6 %, sharp inadequate reaction to external stimuluses - at 3,5 %.

On the one hand, it can be caused immunity changes (influence of electromagnetic fields on immune system is known). It is necessary to pay attention also, that, in view of presence of static electric fields, to the monitor screen dust particles which can contain antigens and bacteriemic flora are drawn. It also promotes development of the above-stated pathology.

Table 5. The State of health is frequent and-or is long ill teenagers

Were enlarged these effects the reason of employment with the computer with observance sanitarnogigienicheskih rules of the organisation of a workplace Were
the Indicator Quantity of episodes
during predshestvujushch its year From the beginning of employment with the computer, through mes
3 6 1 year
I II I II I II I II
Frequency of an ENT and respiratory infections 3,8

0,4

3,6

0,4

3,2 yo

0,3

3,9

0,4

3,9 0,

2

5,5

0,4 *

3,6 yo

0,3

6,1

0,4 **

the Average of admissions of educational institutions 8,0

0,5

14,8 yo

1,4 **

9,0 yo

0,8

24,5 yo 2,6 ** 8,2 1,

4

27,5

2,8 **

ABOUT < £)

+ 1

32

6 ***

Requirement of antibacterial therapy 134 234 153 39

7 **

142 35,5

5,4 **

18,

6

3,

3

36,1

6,4 *

As the current of relapsing infections of ENTs-organs and a respiratory tract has changed

Disease began to proceed more hardly

+ + + + + + +
disease terms - + - + + - + + - + +
Requirement symptomatic and basic preparations (a cut of antibiotics) - + - + - + - ++
+ + + +

the Note: * - comparison with group of incidentally ill teenagers, reliability of differences of averages: one sign - < 0,05, two - 0,01, three - < 0,001.

Long hard work with the computer, combining with disturbance of sanitary-and-hygienic norms of the organisation " the worker " and the labour schedule certainly represents one of variants of the stress-reaction forming development of long-term steady adaptation first of all at the expense of mobilisation of the centres of a brain, organism power resources.

Thus, influence of an electromagnetic field of a wide spectrum of frequencies, impulsive character, various intensity in a combination with high visual and nervously-emotional pressure causes changes from system

power maintenance, immunorezistentnosti an organism and the nervous system, shown in subjective and objective disorders. Working show complaints to headaches, sometimes with a nausea and giddiness more often. In given kogortepodrostkov, more often, than at persons of control groups neurosises, nejrotsirkuljarnye dystonias, gipo and a hypertonia [by Demirchogljan G. G, 1997 are diagnosed; Muratov E. I, 1996; Tarasova L. A, Mukhin G. N, Lagutin G. N, Matjuhina V.V., 1995].

Analyzing results of a condition of the immunologic status of teenagers first of all it becomes perceptible, that intensity of immune system to the extremity of academic year in group of incidentally ill teenagers often ill concerning group is mediated through synthesis depression lgA, depression of cellular immunity (tab. 5): level of cytotoxic lymphocytes CD8 + , producing interferon-Y (an inhibitor virus replikatsii) in 6 months of work and inflammatory CD4 + -lymphocytes

(carrying out rekrutirovanie macrophages in places of an inflammation and playing the central role in the control of coordination of mechanisms of anti-infectious protection from intracellular patogenov) producing in 12 months (is more true in an interval from 6 to 12 mes).

it is possible, that relapsing respiratory infections, regularly influence immune system of an organism of the teenager, cause superfluous activation CD3 + , that in the subsequent leads to chronic change immunoreguljatornogo an index. It can provoke the slowed down inhibition of immune reactions during respiratories of an infection (at the expense of developing deficiency CD8 + -lymphocytes), that is especially dangerous at teenagers working with the computer. Sharp ascending of specific immunity becomes perceptible. It is impossible to exclude, that a combination defined fenotipicheskoj characteristics of leucocytes developing under the influence of long hard work with the computer with non-observance of sanitary-and-hygienic norms and a vicious circle of respiratory infections, finally, can lead to formation of a corresponding pathology, for example, atopicheskoj. Also that as preventive actions should include purposeful immunonologicheskoe influence.

Apparently, an intracellular target chronic inormatsionno - an emotional overstrain, biochemical (biological) markers stressornoj organism reactions first of all is the system of power maintenance, a redox potential OVER/NADN and respiratory a chain of mitochondrions. So it is shown, that in three months of work with computers a blood redox potential
NADN/NADN (the marker dezadapatatsionnyh processes in power supply system), defining activity of power processes in an organism, that can in a combination to differential sensitivity of various people to sledovym to factors (at metabolic level) depending on individual hereditary features [Tarasova L.A., Mukhin G. N, Lagutin G. N, Matjuhina V.V., 1995] to promote formation mitohondrialnoj to a pathology in this group of teenagers.

Table 6. Dynamics of change of the immunologic status often and-or it is long ill teenagers at long information-emotional

an overstrain.

the Indicator the inspection Period, mes
To 3 6 12
Lymphocytes, 10 9 /l
I group 4,9 yo

0,3

5,0 yo

0,2

4,95 yo 0,15 5,1 yo 0,2
II group 4,97

0,32

5,1 yo

0,2

5,3 yo 0,2 + + with 0x1 LO
CD3 + , %
I group 43 yo 4 47 yo 2 49 yo 3 51 yo 3
II group 60 yo 4 62 yo 3 74 yo 5 79 yo 4 * +
CD4, cages/mkl
I group 36 yo 2 35 3 33 3 31 2
II group 38 yo 4 32 3 30 3 27 yo 2 * +
CD8, cages/mkl
I group 24,0 yo

1,0

23,5 yo

2,3

23 yo 2 22 3
II group 26 yo 3 22 yo 2 20 yo 3 16 yo 2 * +
CD4 + / CD8 +
I group 1,50,2 1,4 yo

0,2

1,4 yo 0,1 1,40,1
II group 1,460,1

5

1,4 0,2 1,55 yo 0,15 1,60,1
3F3 + , 10 9 /l (%)
I group 0,590,0

9

0,610,0

5

0,580,06 0,600,02
II group 0,580,0

5

0,620,0

4

0,640,04 0,650,03
IgA, mkg/ml
I group 1,90,2 2,00,3 2,10,2 2,30,3
II group 2,10,2 1,9 0,2 1,80,2 1,70,2 * +
lgE, ME/ML
I group 39 yo 3 5313 4 9 6 50 8
II group 43 yo 3 166

23 ***

270 28 *** 254 34 ***

the Note: the same designations, as in tab. 4.

Interest represents that fact, that on the one hand production biotsidnyh free forms of oxygen phagocytes - polimorfojadernymi leucocytes and macrophages [Spitsyn V. A, 1991] is the protective reaction, expressed in reorganisation of a metabolism of a cell - to augmentation of ionic permeability of a cellular membrane, intensifying of oxidation of a glucose and sharp ascending (in tens times) consumption of the oxygen accompanied by formation 2 - . This phenomenon name " " or " the respiratory " [Tarasova L.A., Mukhin G. N, Lagutin G. N, Matjuhina V.V., 1995], formation NADFN bound to sharp rising in a cell as a result of activation geksozomonofosfatnogo the shunt and oxidation NADFN by a fermental complex - NaDfN-oksidazoj with formation superoksidannogo a radical [Temurjants N.A., Vladimirskij B.M., Tushkin O. G, 1992]. Generation superoksidanion a radical speak not only microbicidal and cytotoxic, but also to no small degree and immunoreguljatornoe action of the activated phagocytes. So, it is shown, that 2 - superoksidnyj anion the radical participates in development hemotaksicheskih peptides [Chernuh A.M.,] and a synthesis induction interlejkin 1 similar factor [Aust S. D., Roerig D. L, Pederson T. C., 1972]. Sharp compensatory ascending of activity mitohondrialnoj fractions SOD of lymphocytes Thus becomes perceptible. Most, apparently, it is necessary to consider as an important point, prognostically adverse factor, absence in rising of activity SOD in group of often ill children to the extremity of academic year (tab. 7).

In a cohort it is frequent and-or it is long ill teenagers when under the influence of additional hronicheskgogo the adaptic process demanding hard work of system of power maintenance with initial signs dezadapatatsii in systems of power maintenance in an organism the raised quantity of active forms of oxygen is developed that is expressed in constant to hyperactivity SOD, mitohondrialnoj, a constant exit of cytochrome With from a cell and disturbance of redox potentials OVER/NADN and NADF/NADFN the respiratory explosion bound to adaptation to inflammatory process closes a maintenance and advance vicious circle disbalansa in system of power maintenance. Long influence stressornyh the factors bound to work with computers at non-observance of norms of the organisation of a workplace and sanitary-and-hygienic rules at teenagers during the late period of teenage age accumulates on certain adaptic vulnerability of the period of the hormonal reorganisation which are the independent powerful stressful factor.

it is practically important, that the state of health of a developing organism is defined by interaction and interference of various risk factors changing in time. In this connection in group of teenagers it is long and constantly working with the computer the risk of failure of adaptation and development of conditions of preillness (a borderline case as deviations in structure and function which neravnotsenny to disease, but can precede it raises.

Table 7. Dynamics of change in systems of power maintenance and antioxidatic protection at frequent and-or it is long ill teenagers at

a long information-emotional overstrain.

the Indicator the inspection Period, mes
To 3 6 12
OVER, nmol/ml
I group 19,0 yo

2,3

18,51,3 19,21,6 20,00,8
II group 20,11,3 18,62,3 17,01,3 16,51,5* +
NADN, nmol/ml
I group 29 yo 3 26 2 31 2 30 2
II group 31 yo 3 27 1 31 3 28 2
over/nadn
I group 0,74

0,06

+

-1 | >

about about

0,61 yo 0,05 0,67 yo

0,07

II group 0,72

0,05

0,67

0,08

0,55 yo 0,05 0,59

0,05 *

+, nmol/ml
I group 48 yo 3 45 2 41 2 50 2
II group 51 yo 3 46 1 48 3 45 2
Mn- cytochrome From/ml
I group 2,1 0,2 2,40,2 2,50,2 2,60,2
II group 2,4 yo

0,3

2,90,4 2,10,2 1,90,2 * +

2.2.1.2. Influence is long is information-emotional pressure on the psychological status and a condition serotoninergicheskoj regulations at teenagers.

In the basic cohort at 6 of 8 teenagers to the extremity of the academic year the headache is celebrated practically every day when the headache in control group is not registered almost. Attracts attention that fact, that in the basic cohort to the extremity of year frequency of respiratory complaints raises. In the basic group to the extremity of the academic year there is an authentic depression of visual acuity, concentration
attention, memory, fast fatigability, lability nervnoemotsionalnogo the status, disturbance of a dream (tab. 8) develops.

Table 8. Change of parametres of the psycho-emotional status at teenagers is long working with the Internet on personal the computer

Parameters Control group the Basic group
I issledo vanie II

issledovani

e

I research II research
sight Disturbance 3,90,2 **

3,10,3

3,90,2 2,30,2 *** # #
Depression of concentration of attention 3,50,2 3,00,3 3,60,2 2,80,2 ***
Fast fatigability 3,80,2 3,00,4 * 3,80,2 * *

3,00,2

memory Depression 3,70,3 3,50,3 3,80,2 * *

3,00,2 #

dream Disturbance 2,60,2 1,90,4 * 2,50,3 1,80,3 *
Fast change of mood 3,20,3 3,00,2 3,30,2 3,20,2

the Note: comparison of indicators I and II researches - *, control and the basic groups - #. Reliability distinguish j averages P < 0,05 - one sign, P < 0,01 - two, P < 0,001 - three.

the Received results specify in disturbance of processes of adaptation which for this period do not lead to formation of pathological shifts, but demand timely both not pharmacological, and pharmacological preventsii. It has appeared, that at teenagers it is long working for the computer with the big files of the information necessary for development of a teaching material, and the developed syndrome of information stress, depression in blood of the maintenance of a free serotonin on 99,65 % becomes perceptible. To change of level of a serotonin it is bound: memory disturbance, regulation temperature reactions, overall health, sex behaviour, a tonus of muscles, regulation of processes of a dream, a condition of endocrine and cardiovascular system [Baldwin D, Rudge S., 1995; Shibuya T, Sato K., 1986]. Thus degree

depressions of level of a serotonin correlates with dream disturbance (r=0,69; p< 0,05) that, on visible, should cause including adaptogennyh mechanisms.

Depression of level of a serotonin is accompanied by augmentation of the general oksidantnoj activity in 1,7 times and depression of the general antioxidatic activity in 1,5 times (tab. 9). It is supposed, that the answer to serotonin depression can be maintenance rising melatonina in blood which is a component of not enzymatic system of the antioxidatic protection, necessary for prevention oksidantnogo stress which is registered by the relation of antioxidatic activity to the general oksidantnoj
activity. At teenagers it is long working for the computer with the big files of the information without observance of rules of hygienic norms, the psychoemotional strain that causes intensity serotoninergicheskoj regulation of activity of antioxidatic protection of blood develops.

Table 9. Change of the maintenance of a serotonin and activity of antioxidatic system at teenagers at is long is information-emotional pressure.

Parameters Control group the Basic group
I research II research I research II research
OOA, % 13,22,4 18,13,5 12,22,1 21,33,1 ***
OAA, % 3,44,2 39,34,0 *** 34,54,8 *** # # # 35,73,1
AA/OA 2,650,25 2,150,25 2,850,35 1,70,2 * #
the Free serotonin, nmol/ml 0,180,02 0,130,03 0,160,02 0,0560,006 *** # #

the Note: the same designations, as in tab. 1, OOA - the general antioxidatic activity, OAA - the general antioxidatic activity.

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Scientific source INGA MAMUCHISHVILI. INTERRELATION STRESS-INDUCED of DISTURBANCES In nejrogumoralnoj to SYSTEM And SYSTEM of POWER SUPPLY At TEENAGERS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of medical sciences. Tbilisi - 2006. 2006

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