Morfofunktsionalnaja the characteristic of cellular elements of a pulp of the developing and generated teeth of mammals

the structure of a pulp of a tooth Now is in detail enough investigated, morphological changes are in details described at caries and a pulpitis (Ivanov B.C. From co-workers., 2003). It is bound by that various methods of the intravital morphological analysis (Grigorjan A.S., 2002) even more often take root into stomatology practice.

Besides, scientific researches in stomatology in the majority are based on comparison of clinical data with morphological (Gemonov V.V. from co-workers., 2002; Rodzaevskaja E.B. from co-workers., 2004).

Last decades in biology and medicine were marked by rapid development of basic researches that is immediately bound to introduction in practice of scientific workings out elektronnomorfoskopicheskogo and tracer techniques (Wagner H.N., 2006). Wide use of these methods has generated qualitatively new methodological approach to the decision of the problems bound to an establishment of the basic patterns of development and vital activity of biological systems at various levels of the structural organisation (Mettler F.A., 2006).

reports on participation nejromediatorov - catecholamins, a serotonin, Histaminum in regulation of biological processes in the developing, intact and inflamed pulp of a tooth (Adamkiewicz V.W Are of interest also. et al., 1978; Nagy G. et al., 2000). In a tooth pulp receptors to catecholamins, a serotonin, Histaminum and the enzymes participating in their inactivation (Kim S are found out. et al., 1989; O'Sullivan M. et al., 2002).

In the scientific literature also there are data about intermediary participation of biogenic amines in immunologic reactions (Bozhko G. H, 1984; Goats of Century I from co-workers., 1984; Cook-Mills J.M. et al., 1995). It is proved, that the condition of resistance of an organism is in many respects defined by the maintenance in blood and other tissues of bioamines that stimulates studying of their influence on development of caries of a teeth (Wang J., 2010).

In A.V.Moscow's work (2009) it is shown, that in subodontoblasticheskom a pulp layer there is a population of the neuroendocrinal cells containing biogenic amines, a monoaminoxidase, nejronspetsificheskuju enolazu, sinaptofizin, possessing argirofiliej, sudanofiliej and aldegidfuksinofiliej. For the first time change of their quantitative maintenance, morfofunktsionalnyh properties is proved at caries and a pulpitis, sochetannom with parodontitom.

To number of the important signs characterising any cell population, concern such, as a parity of the cells which are in a stage of division, a cellular differentiation, in a stage of active functioning, or rest. Such signs concern in a peer measure and mechanisms of maintenance of a homeostasis of cell populations in an adult organism in the conditions of various functional activity (Huang G.T., 2010).

submicroscopy and historadiography Methods are successfully applied to the decision of many questions bound to revealing morfofunktsionalnyh of correlations in various cell populations and an establishment of the basic patterns intra-and interpopulation mutual relations in various organs and tissues, both in norm, and in the conditions of a pathology (Loginova N.K., from co-workers., 2007).

the tooth Pulp represents the specialised organ which is carrying out numerous functions, from which most important: trophic, plastic and protective (Ida-Yonemochi H., et al., 2014).

From the point of view of the structural organisation, prominent feature of a pulp is its morphological heterogeneity. While
the central and intermediate layers of a pulp are presented mezen-himopodobnoj by a quaggy connecting tissue which structure includes all typical connective tissue elements, its peripheric layer is presented vysokospetsializirovannymi by cellular elements - the fibrilloblasts allocated with specific functional and morphological signs (Ermolev S.N., from co-workers., 2008).

In spite of the fact that fibrilloblasts carry out as well as fibroblasts an operating time and secretion of a tropocollagen from a pulp and other kinds of a connecting tissue, nevertheless they to many signs coincide with osteal cells and, in essence, can be carried to this class (Alliot-Licht B., et al., 2001).

In a pulp ontogenesis together with its cellular elements it is possible to allocate a number of the important stages corresponding to stages of development of the tooth - the differentiation period (embryonal, early postnatalnyj); the period of functioning in the conditions of structural and functional stability and the period of fading of functions with a corresponding structural reduction (Anderson L., Jr M, 2002).

Considering the above-stated, it is possible to say about known adequacy of cell populations of a pulp as model for studying of the basic patterns morfofunktsionalnoj population dynamics that is one of prominent aspects of a fundamental biological problematics. In this plan research morfofunktsionalnyh and population characteristics of cells of a pulp is represented a major landmark on ways of disclosing of life cycle such vysokospetsializirovannyh cells, as fibrilloblasts. It is difficult to overestimate value and other, pragmatical aspect of the put question as specification morfofunktsionalnyh characteristics and population kinetiki odontoblasticheskih cells should promote revealing of the mechanisms underlying reparativnyh reactions of a pulp and will form base for development and rationalisation of methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of such widespread diseases, as caries of a teeth and its complication.

it is necessary to notice, that the majority of already spent researches on a pulp of a teeth though was carried out with obshchebiologicheskih positions, but concerned, mainly, studying of such narrow question as molecular mechanisms kollagenogeneza (Huang G.T., 2010). With that end in view used as model specific kollagenoobrazujushchie cells fibrilloblasts. The orientation of such researches also has defined the fullest illumination in the literature morfofunktsionalnyh characteristics of cellular elements of a pulp of continuously growing incisors of rodents and germs of a teeth of animals and the person (Kim J.Y., 2013). At the same time the structure of a pulp of the generated teeth is described at elektronno-microscopic level only in separate researches (Yamamoto M., et al., 2013).

Out of sphere of researches there were such prominent aspects of problems of vital activity of a pulp of a teeth as its life cycle, morfofunktsionalnye correlation, that is all that urged to play, in our opinion, an essential role not only in respect of a theoretical estimation of a parity of structure and function of cells of a pulp in norm, but also to be basis, making a start from which, it would be possible to answer not solved questions of a pathology of tooth tissues much yet.

One of the major properties of a pulp is its ability to compensatory reactions at damage of firm tissues of a tooth which is expressed in an operating time by cells of a pulp of a layer reparativnogo a dentine interfering, in particular at destruction by caries of a blanket of a dentine, punching of a wall of a pulp cavity. Similar reaction is observed as a result of preparing of firm tissues of a tooth (Estrela C., et al., 2011).

In case of already come punching of a bottom of a pulp cavity the differentiation of separate elements from a pool fibroblasticheskih cells in odontoblastopodobnye the cells forming a dentinal ponticulus (Yu J quite often becomes perceptible., 2010).

Reparativnye pulp potencies are appreciably defined by ability of its cell populations to restoration of the lost elements
(Koyama N., 2009). In the light of told, as the basic moment for understanding of this party of vital activity of a pulp revealing of cellular resources of separate populations, in particular, studying of proliferative activity of their cellular elements serves. Especially important research of cells of a peripheric layer of a pulp that is bound both to large number of functions carried out by them, and with practically full absence in the literature of data about population kinetike odontoblasticheskih cells is represented. From the analysis of data available in the literature appears, that odontoblasticheskaja population of a pulp of the teeth which have finished growth unanimously is surveyed as the population deprived of mechanisms of cellular updating (Jo Y.Y., 2007; Sakai V.T., 2010). Such representation is based, mainly, on data of researches about absence in a peripheric layer of a pulp of figures of a karyokinesis (Huang G.T., 2009).

the fact of change cellular generatsy in a peripheric layer of a pulp of continuously growing incisors of rodents where as a unique source for replenishment odontoblasticheskoj populations admit the undifferentiated cells of a pulp located in a zone of an enamel organ (Ohazama A At the same time is known., 2004).

Well-known, that for any cell population ability to replacement of the lost elements again formed is one of the major functions providing it zhiznestojkost (Huang G.T., 2011). With reference to a pulp of a tooth research of this question is represented especially significant also because the indicator of level of a proliferation of its cellular elements can serve as criterion for an estimation of a condition of a pulp by working out of effective remedies of therapy of caries and its complications.

the Role of proliferative processes in realisation reparativnyh pulp reactions dictates also necessity of studying of age changes population kinetiki, and in particular, life cycle of cellular elements making it to tap dynamics reparativnoj activity
pulps depending on a stage of formation of a tooth and its ontogenetic evolution (Demarco F.F., et al., 2011).

the Answer to the numerous questions bound to the basic characteristics of vital activity of a pulp, demands, first of all, a choice of adequate model of research. From the point of view of some authors, the most comprehensible object for comparative studying of ultrastructural characteristics of cellular elements of a pulp and their population kinetiki represents a teeth of rodents, including rats (Tsujimoto Y., et al., 1988). It is known, that cells of a pulp of a teeth of mammals carry out numerous functions in relation to firm tissues of a tooth from which the most significant are dentinobrazujushchaja and trophic (Huang G.T., 2009). From the point of view of studying of functional features and specific structural characteristics a teeth of rats represents the most convenient object as specific function dentinopoeza and more the general - trophicities is inherent in a pulp of a teeth of rats also, as well as other mammals (Goldberg M., et. Al., 2011).

the Combination at rats of continuously growing teeth and the molar tooths which are in " " a condition, allows to solve successfully questions of correlation of structure and function (Eickhoff M., 2005). Considering a generality of functional characteristics of a pulp of a teeth of mammals, it is possible to believe, that patterns structurally-funktsio-nalnyh the relations, the pulps of a teeth of rats taped at studying, extend on a teeth of other mammals, including person (Angermann R., 2004). According to some researchers, advantage of a teeth of rats as object for studying of structural features of a pulp consists also that their use allows to exclude the numerous methodical difficulties arising at processing of a pulp for elektronnomikroskopicheskogo of research (Takahashi C., 2010).

the Disadvantage of research of a teeth of mammals is that firm tissues surrounding a pulp complicate access to it of fixing solutions that slows down process of bracing and leads to development
postmortalnyh autolytic changes in its structural components (Nakao K., 2007). The method of mechanical elimination of the firm tissues, quite often used at a pretreatment of a pulp for elektronnomikroskopicheskogo studying, according to some authors, is not optimum as leads, in some cases, to disturbance of integrity of a pulp, to disorganisation odontoblasticheskogo a layer and can promote occurrence of artefacts in a cellular material of a pulp (Cordeiro M.M., 2008).

As show the given literatures, appreciable successes in studying of a thin structure of cells of a pulp have been reached with introduction in practice of researches of a perfused method of introduction fixing pacopo (Nakamura S., 2009). Use of this method not only promotes the best safety of a fabric material of a pulp, but also provides possibility of the subsequent decalcification of dentoalveolar blocks. Thanks to conservation of normal anatomic parities in a fabric material, orientation of objects of research that allows to receive sections in an investigated fabric material from any set site of a pulp and firm tissues of a teeth is facilitated.

In work A. Balic (2010) established fact of change cellular generatsy odontoblasticheskih cells of a pulp of the generated teeth. It is shown, that the destruction of a part of fibrilloblasts takes place not only in a pulp of continuously growing incisors as it has been shown earlier in works M Goldberg and F. Escaig (1984), but naturally occurs and in a pulp of a teeth of rats, both during tooth formation, and on all extent of its existence and represents a necessary component population kinetiki pulps in norm.

In N.L.Jakovlevoj's work (1985) it is noticed, that the mechanism of a restore of the lost cellular elements of a peripheric layer of a pulp, it is partially carried out at the expense of a proliferation of fibrilloblasts. In the same place dynamics of genesial ability of cellular elements of various layers and departments of a pulp during its formation and growth and depending on a phase of functional activity is shown. It is shown, that the greatest proliferative activity cells of the central layer of a pulp possess, on
to an approach measure to periphery of an organ ability of cellular elements to a proliferation considerably decreases.

a Number of authors had been established correlation between a phase of functional activity odontoblasticheskih cells of a pulp and their features ultrastruk - turnoj the organisations. It is shown, that with end of growth of a tooth the cytoplasma odontoblasticheskih cells loses the majority of the organellas involved in process of albuminous synthesis (Frandson R.D., Spurgeon T.L., 2008).

At elektronnomikroskopicheskom studying of a pulp of a teeth of rodents at different stages of an ontogenesis and in various functional conditions, morphological heterogeneity odontoblasticheskoj populations that reflects various degree of functional activity and in a certain measure, an evolution stage odontoblasticheskih cells in which it it is possible to allocate phases of functional activation, falling of functional activity of structural and functional degradation, up to destruction and destruction of the specified cellular elements is taped (Yamamoto H., 2003).

In a pulp of a growing teeth (constantly growing incisors of rats and molar tooths in a growth stage) fibrilloblasts represent vysokospetsializirovannye the cells allocated with signs of high synthetic and secretory activity that corresponds to their function dentinopoeticheskih cells (Duailibi M.T., 2004). Falling of intensity of a dentification in a teeth (the molar tooths which have finished growth of rats) finds the reflexion in metastructure change odontoblasticheskih cells, namely - in a reduction granuljarnoj a cytoplasmic reticulum, pauperisation of structure of mitochondrions and a lamellar complex (Seo B.M., 2008).

In structure odontoblasticheskoj populations of a pulp of all studied types of a teeth of mammals are found out the cells showing in different degree expression of signs of structural decomposition (Roei und Piet Beute-Faber, 2009). In incisors of rats they are localised in the field of a pulp, prilezhashchej to a zone of intensive erasability of a dentine. In molar tooths at the studied stages of an ontogenesis these cells are in regular intervals distributed in root and coronal departments of a pulp.
the destruction of a part of cells odontoblasticheskoj populations of a pulp of a teeth has physiological character and is one of necessary components of an ontogenesis of a pulp in norm.

Results gistoavtoradiograficheskogo the researches spent in work by N.L.Jakovlevoj (1985) with use of the labelled precursor of DNA timidin-N3, have shown, that at the heart of the updating mechanism odontoblasticheskoj populations ability of fibrilloblasts to cellular division lays.

the Maximum level of a cellular proliferation is shown by dental germ cells (Iwasaki Y., 2011). In particular, in a peripheric layer of a tooth papilla the labelled precursor is taped in 58,41 % from number of all cells odontoblasticheskoj populations. In process of an odontosis there is a depression of level of proliferative activity in all layers of a pulp. So in odontoblasticheskoj populations of a root portion of a pulp of incisors of rats in mass of a body 50-60 gr. 1,540 labelled cells, and at rats in mass of a body 200-250 gr contain on the average. This indicator decreases to 0,611. In a root pulp of molar tooths of rats in mass of a body 50-60 gr. In odontoblasticheskoj populations contains 0,702, and at rats in mass of a body 200-250 gr. The indicator of cells makes 0,075.

In a teeth of rats in mass of a body 50-60 gr statistically authentic higher indicators of labelled cells in various populations of a root part of a pulp in comparison with coronal become perceptible. In a teeth of rats in mass of a body 200-250 gr it does not become perceptible authentic differences among labelled cells of a root and coronal pulp. The exception is made odontoblasticheskaja by population of a pulp of incisors in which the number of labelled cells decreases from 0,611 in root and to 0,250 - in a coronal part of a pulp.

Existence in a peripheric layer of a pulp of the mechanism of updating of cellular elements and participation in this process odontoblasticheskih cells frame theoretical base for search of the medical agents referred on stimulation reparativnyh of reactions of a pulp in therapy of caries of teeth and its complications. In N.L.Jakovleva's work (1985) has noted existence of indicators of proliferative activity of cells of a peripheric layer of a pulp,

which can serve as criterion of an estimation of medical effect of investigated techniques at their experimental approbation.


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Scientific source KOVALEVA MARIA SERGEEVNA. Clinico-morphological research of a condition of tissues of a tooth at treatment of caries of a dentine with application of deep fluorination and nizkointensivnogo laser radiation. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of medical sciences. Great Novgorod - & 2014. 2014

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